PY101: Psychological Perspectives on Human Behavior. Personality Theories and Assessment. How do psychologists define and use the concept of “personality”?.
Personality Theories and Assessment
“Characteristic pattern of thinking,
feeling and acting.”
Four Major Perspectives on Personality
Psychoanalytic - unconscious motivations
Trait - specific dimensions of personality
Humanistic - inner capacity for growth
Social-Cognitive - influence of environment
University of Vienna 1873
Medical School Graduate
Specialized in Nervous
Some patients’ disorders
had no physical cause!
below the surface
“the mind is like an iceberg - mostly hidden”
small part above surface
thoughts and passions to
Dreams and Slips
Id - energy constantly striving to satisfy basic drives
Ego - seeks to gratify the Id in realistic ways
- voice of conscience
that focuses on how
we ought to behave
(1). Psychodynamic approaches to personality.
(2). Humanistic approaches to personality.
(3). Trait approaches to personality.
(4). Social Cognitive approaches to personality.
Many are called Neo-Freudians.
All place lessemphasis on sex.
How can we assess traits?
(aim to simplify a person’s behavior patterns)
Obtained from experiments, observations of behavior, and questionnaire responses from the general population.
Behavior learned through
conditioning and observation
What we think about our situation
affects our behavior
Environment and Intellect
Internal World + External World = Us
Internal Locus of Control:
You pretty much control your own destiny
External Locus of Control:
Luck, fate and/or powerful others control your destiny.
lack of control