Properties of Solutions. CA Standards. Classification of Matter. Solutions are homogeneous mixtures. Solute. A solute is the dissolved substance in a solution. Salt in salt water. Sugar in soda drinks. Carbon dioxide in soda drinks. Solvent.
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Solutions are homogeneous mixtures
A solute is the dissolved substance in a solution.
Saltin salt water
Sugarin soda drinks
Carbon dioxide in soda drinks
A solvent is the dissolving medium in a solution.
Waterin salt water
Nonpolar solutesdissolve best in nonpolar solvents
Polar and ionic solutesdissolve best in polar solvents
The oxygen (slightly negative) end of the water molecule is attracted to the positive ion of a salt.
The hydrogen (slightly positive) end of the water molecule is attracted to the negative ion of a salt.
Solids tend to dissolve best when:
Gasestend to dissolve best when:
An electrolyte is:
A nonelectrolyte is:
The ammeter measures the flow of electrons (current)
through the circuit.
If the ammeter measures a current, and the bulb
glows, then the solution conducts.
If the ammeter fails to measure a current, and the
bulb does not glow, the solution is non-conducting.
Colligative properties are those that depend on the concentration of particles in a solution, not upon the identity of those particles.
Each mole of solute particles lowers the freezing point of 1 kilogram of water by 1.86 degrees Celsius.
Boiling Point Elevation
Each mole of nonvolatile solute particles raises the boiling point of 1 kilogram of water by 0.51 degrees Celsius.