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Middle School History. Origins in the ‘six year high school’ Inclusion of Carnegie Units from the high school, particularly in ninth grade Emphasis on disciplines and compartmentalization Mechanistic models, including ‘factory’ model. Progressive Thinking. Rousseau (18 th century French)

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middle school history
Middle School History
  • Origins in the ‘six year high school’
  • Inclusion of Carnegie Units from the high school, particularly in ninth grade
  • Emphasis on disciplines and compartmentalization
  • Mechanistic models, including ‘factory’ model
progressive thinking
Progressive Thinking
  • Rousseau (18th century French)
  • Pestalozzi – “drawing out” vs. “filling up”
  • Froebel – child learning built around interests, creating an experiential model
  • Dewey – child-centered curricula; community, and positivism. Subject matter is for living, for experience.
dewey s proposal
Dewey’s Proposal
  • Theory of Apperception: new experience is perceived and/or comprehended in terms of old or previously experienced understandings.
  • Child-Centered Curriculum
  • Community of Learners
  • Positive Learning Climate
  • Integrated and Applied Subjects
  • Acceptance of Differences
organizational problem
Organizational Problem
  • Resources and curricular needs tended to emphasize the inclusion of the ninth grade in the junior high, taking the program away from the early adolescent developmental emphasis.
  • This school structure was attempting to serve two very different learning communities.
william alexander
William Alexander
  • A Student-Centered thinker who advocated the use of a 6-7-8 program that emphasized early adolescent needs.
  • Revived the term ‘Middle School.’
  • Focus on exploration, not subject mastery
factors
Factors
  • Sputnik
  • Desegregation
  • Enrollment
  • Readiness for change
attributes
Attributes
  • Block Schedules
  • Team Teaching
  • Interdisciplinary Work
  • Guidance
  • Exploration
  • Varied pedagogy
  • Personal development and learning styles
failure of promise
Failure of Promise
  • Bureaucratic and Infrastructure Conflict
  • Commitment of Resources
  • Competing Agendas
  • Failure to implement research based practices
  • Standardization
  • Faulty Pedagogy – “drill and practice”