Architecture. M. Ryan Academic Decathlon 2005-06. Architecture. The art and science of designing and constructing buildings. Architecture. Architects: specialists in designing structures. Architecture.
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Architects: specialists in designing structures
One of the early architectural developments was the use of the “post-and-lintel” method
A beam is placed horizontally across upright posts.
Ancient Greek “Orders” (styles): composed of a shaft, capital, and base. (click me)
Entablature: the top of an order; includes the architrave, frieze, and cornice.
Other key developments include the arch,
and the dome (my personal favorite).
The arch was a purely Roman invention. An arch is often made up of small stones called voussoir and a large central stone called a keystone.
A series of columns is called a colonnade.
A series of arches is called an arcade.
The arch, vault, and dome are variations of the same concept that allowed for greater height and more space inside a building.
The Romans were great engineers. They developed concrete as a building material, which was used in building aqueducts, baths, and other public works projects.
Flying Buttress: external arch that counter-balanced the outward thrust of the high, vaulted ceilings.
During the Industrial Revolution, many new materials were developed: glass-- Crystal Palace (1851)
and wrought iron:
The Eiffel Tower
Antonio Gaudi: Spanish architect– no flat surface or straight lines (organic)
Antonio Gaudi’s most famous building: “La Sagrada Familia”
The 1st skyscraper was made in St. Louis, MO by Louis Sullivan who coined the expression “form follows function”.
Frank Lloyd Wright: American architect; carefully considered the environment where the building was to be constructed.
Steel and concrete are the favored materials for commercial type construction.
Wood and brick are the favored materials for residential construction.