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Political Culture & Ideology

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  1. Political Culture & Ideology US Government Mrs. Lacks

  2. What is political culture?

  3. What is political ideology?

  4. “What do you think of when you hear LEFT and RIGHT in American politics?” “Where do the terms LEFT and RIGHT come from?” “Politics, it seems to me, for years, or all too long, has been concerned with right or left instead of right or wrong.”Richard Armour

  5. Political spectrum: the standard linear model Far Left Centre- Left CentreCentre- RightFar Right Socialists Liberal Conservatives Ultraconservatives Communists Liberals Conservatives Fascists Radicals Reactionaries

  6. American Political Ideology • Two major schools of ideology dominate American politics: liberalism and conservatism • Two minor schools are also prevalent: socialism and libertarianism

  7. Liberals • Government intervention in the economy is necessary to remedy the defects of capitalism • Government should promote freedom for all • Government should seek to correct social issues • Equal access to health care, housing, education

  8. Conservatives • Government should be protect traditional values • Sole functions of government are • to protect us from foreign enemies • preserve law & order • encourage economic growth

  9. Socialism • Mixed system – Goal: equality and freedom • Government controls economy in terms of planning and full employment • Full political freedom

  10. Libertarianism • Cherishes individual liberty, sharply limited government • “live and let live” • Fiscally conservative (few taxes) but socially liberal (freedom from government intervention in social issues)

  11. Complete Economic and Social regulation by the state. Complete Economic freedom for individuals, complete Social regulation by the state. Closeness to an AXIS indicates moderate ideology Complete Economic regulation by individuals, complete Social freedom for individuals. Complete Economic and Social freedom for individuals.

  12. “Where are MOST of the world’s governments on the Political Spectrum?”

  13. American Politics REMEMBER, this shows the WHOLE spectrum of political thought. NOT just the national average! “Where are MOST American politicians on the Political Spectrum?” – WHY?

  14. Groups represented in US politics: • Most elected officials and serious candidates are near the middle of the compass…

  15. Progressives • Focus on progress… of liberty, of equality, of science, of technology… etc. • Government should spearhead efforts to achieve this if its not happening in the private sector

  16. Social Democrats • supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and a capitalist mixed economy. • Lessen income inequality without infringing upon freedom • Emphasis on equal treatment for all • Expansion of civil rights • Similar to liberal democrats • Not to be confused with democratic socialism – which is economic socialism (planned economy) with liberalism (elections, personal freedom, equality)

  17. Neoconservatives • Formed from by some who split from Democratic Party in 1960s because they didn’t support civil rights, Great Society • Stresses democracy, American superiority (military, economy) • identify one American culture • skeptical of outsiders (originally communists) • heavy emphasis on military build-up • Return to Christian values

  18. Paleoconservatives • born of the neo-confederate movement in the 1980s (anti-civil rights, anti-desegregation, anti-gay rights, anti-welfare, anti-separation of church and state) • stress restrictions on immigration • roll back multi-cultural programs • decentralization of power (more power to states) • restrictions on free trade (more tariffs) • economic nationalism

  19. Alt Right • Youngest generation of paleoconservatives • Focus on white nationalism • Ex. Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville (2017)

  20. A word of caution Political labels have different meanings across national boundaries as well as over time Ideological terms or labels can be confusing You can’t lump everyone in the same group Ex. You can be social liberal but fiscally conservative Ex. You can be socially conservative but fiscally liberal

  21. Ideological Views Most Americans do not organize their attitudes systematically Very low consistency among various attitudes and opinions Most Americans are very similar – 75% report to be moderate

  22. Other ways to interpret the spectrum…

  23. Market Inequality Democracy Authoritarianism Equality State

  24. the market, trade Political spectrum: the circular model, based on Clinton Rossiter CONSERVATISM LIBERALISM THELEFT: change, freedom, equality, labour THE RIGHT: status quo, order, inequality, capital COMMUNISM FASCISM the state, war

  25. There are several different ways to cut this pie…

  26. Red - socialism White - capitalism Neoconservatism Neoliberalism Welfare state liberalism Traditional conservatism Social democracy Ultraconservatism Democratic socialism Reform communism (market socialism) Fascism (National socialism) Totalitarian communism Socialism vs. capitalism

  27. White – elitist (discourage popular participation in politics) Red – populist (mobilize the masses) Neoconservatism Neoliberalism Welfare state liberalism Traditional conservatism Social democracy Ultraconservatism Democratic socialism Reform communism (market socialism) Fascism (National socialism) Totalitarian communism Elitism vs. populism

  28. White – reject liberal democracy Red – support liberal democracy Neoconservatism Neoliberalism Welfare state liberalism Traditional conservatism Social democracy Ultraconservatism Democratic socialism Reform communism (market socialism) Fascism (national socialism) Totalitarian communism For or against liberal democracy

  29. Assignment • Political Culture & Ideology (see klacks.weebly.com)