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IS 483 Lecture 4 . IS/IT Functions and Structures. Team Exercise. See http://facweb.cs.depaul.edu/nsutcliffe/483-00Currwork/Notes04exercise.doc

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is 483 lecture 4

IS 483 Lecture 4

IS/IT Functions and Structures

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

team exercise
Team Exercise
  • See http://facweb.cs.depaul.edu/nsutcliffe/483-00Currwork/Notes04exercise.doc

a. What does the strategic focus tell? What is now the new decision criteria for IT?   b. What choices for locating computing centers?  What is apropos for IT personnel?   c. What alignment is best starting point using what criteria?   d. Describe 4 basic governance pressures and its role in IT history – what should the aim be?

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

agenda
Agenda

Service Oriented Architecture

LANs and WANs

Internets/Extranets/Intranets

Architecture Management

Service Level Agreements

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

it is organizational models
IT/IS Organizational Models

Placement

  • Organizational models are the basic ways that people structure the IT function within an organization.  Typically placement of computing/communication resources and the placement of IT personnel are the most important.
  •   Location of computing resources 
    • Centralized 
    • Decentralized 
    • Distributed 
  •  Placement of IT Personnel 
    • Aligned to User areas
    • Aligned to computing resources

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

service oriented architecture
Service Oriented Architecture
  • Groups of software components that carry out business processes
  • An architecture built around a collection of reusable components with well-defined interfaces.

Evolves

  • from CORBA* which revolves around tightly coupled objects
  • to loosely coupled services using well-defined interfaces, such as web services.
  • Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is an architecture and specification for creating, distributing, and managing distributed program object s in a network.

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

service oriented architecture6
Service Oriented Architecture
  • Benefits
    • Can integrate “everything but the kitchen sink”
    • Easier integration process using:
      • SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)
      • WSDL (Web Services Description Language)
    • Better business / technical dialogue along meeting business needs (services)
    • Assists all in rethinking around best practices for running business
    • Greater ROI through
        • Easier integration
        • Increased agility

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

soa and web services
SOA and Web Services
  • Web Services – can be alone
  • SOA – can be alone
  • Web Services + SOA >> ideal synergy
  • E.g. right data gets to right person

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

soa challenges
SOA challenges
  • Security on open architecture more difficult
  • Managing complex services configuration more difficult
  • Network monitoring more difficult
  • Costs are higher

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

building soa
Building SOA
  • Blueprint is mandatory for
    • Focus on goals
  • Need to identify service levels to provide before building
  • Need to prioritize services to put in SOA to those that do most good and have less need to near real time responses

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

data networks
Data Networks
  • Collection of technologies that get data from one computer to another
  • Include
    • Clients
    • Servers
    • Routers
    • Switches
    • Topologies
    • Protocols
    • Hubs
    • Cable (copper or fiber)

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

servers
Servers
  • Types:
    • Basic file and print
    • Database (includes DBMS)
    • Application
    • Web

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

servers configuration considerations
Servers: Configuration Considerations
  • Processor and Memory
  • Disk Storage
  • Fault Tolerance
    • Redundant power supplies
    • Disk Drives: RAID levels (Redundant Array of Independent/Inexpensive Disks)
    • Redundant Network Interface Cards
    • Uninterruptible Power Supplies
    • Cross Connecting
    • Clustered Servers
    • Backup
  • Support from vendor

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

local area networks
Local Area Networks
  • Design goals
    • Maximize traffic efficiency
    • Reliability
    • Manageability
    • Flexibility
  • Location of Devices determines location of:
    • Hubs
    • Backbones
  • Traffic Volume characteristics is a major design issue
    • Low volume email vs high volume animation
    • Pattern between servers

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

local area network bus typology
Local Area Network Bus Typology

Most popular

Ethernet Communication Technology

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

local area network ring typology
Local Area Network Ring Typology

Token-RingCommunication Technology

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

network backbone
Network Backbone
  • High-capacity portion of the LAN that carries data from lower-speed parts of the network that connect to it.
    • From single piece of hardware
    • To fiber ring connecting 30 floors of building

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

hubs and concentrators
Hubs and Concentrators
  • Chassis versus Stackable
    • Stackable – cheaper and convenient
    • Chassis – redundant power supplies, high-end options
  • Passive versus Active
    • Active can regenerate signal
  • Shared versus Switched
    • Switched – expensive/superior performance

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

wiring
Wiring
  • Copper
  • Fiber

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

lan management
LAN: Management
  • Finding problems thru Network Management System software
  • Network Monitoring
    • SNMP (Simple N/W Mgt Protocol
    • RMON (Remote Monitoring) – expanded SNMP for analysis, traffic statistics, bottlenecks
  • Expansion
    • Multiple wire runs
    • Easily upgradeable hardware
    • Costs are mostly one time for construction

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

wan wide area networks
WAN: Wide Area Networks
  • Network that connects the remote locations via telecommunications facilities
  • Costs are mostly recurring for leasing lines
  • Design Considerations
    • Geography
    • Traffic flow
    • Volumes
    • High-speed transmission need
    • 24 x 7 need
    • Backup/fail-over capabilities
    • Installation delays

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

wan technologies
WAN Technologies
  • Point-to-Point Circuits
    • Aka leased, dedicated, private lines
  • Dial-up lines
    • POTS (plain old telephone system)
    • ISDN –over copper lines
    • DSL – over copper lines
  • Packet switching
    • ATM and Frame Relay
    • Virtual Private Network
  • Cable modems

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

slide23
WAN
  • Third Parties can manage for you
  • LAN tools can also manage WAN

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

cable plant
Cable Plant
  • Def. The physical wire used in your facility that connects all the network devices, the design of the wiring layout, and all components that are used within it.
  • Unique investment issues
    • Cost is in labor of installation, not material
    • Once installed, access is virtually lost
    • Can’t take capital investment with you
    • No upgrades, only replacements
    • Capital investment that outlives all other

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

cable plant design factors
Cable Plant: Design Factors
  • LAN technologies used: (ethernet, token-ring)
  • Distances
  • Exposure to hazards
  • Bandwidth requirements
  • Existing networking equipment
  • Local building code requirements
  • Nodes (#) per collision domain

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

managing a cable plant
Managing a Cable Plant
  • Maintain wiring diagrams & keep current
  • Label both ends of cables
  • Keep wires organized
  • Check wires with software
  • Check wire closets for heat, mice, water

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

miscellaneous concerns
Miscellaneous Concerns
  • Wireless --Expanding by leaps and bounds
  • Remote Access – Needed?
    • Direct line
    • Web-based
  • Network Security Issues
    • Dial-Back
    • RADIUS
    • Kerberos
    • PPTP
    • IPsec

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

internet intranets extranets
Internet/Intranets/Extranets
  • Internet – a web site that a sponsor makes available for every user on the web who wants to see it.
  • Intranet – a web site that is only available to those that the owner says can see it.
  • Extranet – a web site that only available to those in associated organizations.

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

overall goals for web sites
Overall Goals for Web Sites
  • Informing
  • Entertaining
  • Selling products and services
  • Generating sale leads

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

e commerce
E-Commerce
  • Conducting business transactions over the web
  • Raises revenues 10-20%
  • Reduces costs 20-45&
  • Asset intensity reduced 20 to -60%
  • Types:
    • Business-to-consumer (B2C)
    • Business-to-business (B2B)

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

e commerce startup issues
E-Commerce Startup Issues
  • Getting your customers to know your site
  • Site must be fast and communicative
  • Site must be able to handle the business
  • Site must be secure

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

e commerce technical elements
E-Commerce Technical Elements
  • Shopping carts
  • Payment processing
  • Shipping and handling calculations
  • Security provisions
  • Data exchanges with other business applications

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

web site concerns
Web Site Concerns
  • Content
  • Design
  • Programming
  • Hosting – often outsourced to ISPs

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

isp evaluation criteria
ISP Evaluation Criteria
  • ISP is a provider who provides connections to the internet– choice is based on:
    • Speed
    • Reliability: multiple lines
    • Cost
    • Email backup concerns -- SOX

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

architectures client server
Architectures – Client/Server
  • A versatile, message-based and modular infrastructure that is intended to improve:
    • Usability
    • Flexibility
    • Interoperability
    • Scalability
  • Other architectures
    • Mainframe (all done on a central processor) with dumb terminals
    • File Sharing (files downloaded/uploaded) to/from PCs to server

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

architectures client server37
Architectures – Client/Server
  • Two-tier
    • Client – system interface and perhaps processing
    • Server – data and processing
  • Three-tier
    • Client – system interface
    • Middle tier – transaction processing monitor-- message servers-- application servers
    • Server Data
    • Server Application processing

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

architecture management
Architecture Management
  • Organizational Framework
    • Executive Steering Committee
      • Senior managers
      • Chaired by CIO
    • Task Force
      • Half are users
      • Works part-time
      • 20/80
      • Reports to Head of IT architecture

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

architecture management39
Architecture Management
  • Goals based on business drivers
    • Low-cost execution
    • Fast development time
    • Flexibility for modification
    • High availability/reliability
    • Etc.

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

service level agreements
Service Level Agreements
  • Reasons for developing
    • Newly implemented SLM strategy
    • New technology is going “live”
    • Customer concerns on IT service delivery
    • Customer desire to choose how much service they want

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

service level agreements41
Service Level Agreements
  • 5 elements of good SLAs
    • Descriptions of service
    • Service standards
    • Duration
    • Roles and responsibilities
      • The customer representative
      • Service level manager
    • Evaluation criteria

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

service level agreements42
Service Level Agreements
  • 5 mistakes
    • Lack of organizational readiness
    • Lengthy or too technical language
    • Lack of support
    • Poor customer focus
    • Unrealistic performance targets

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005

next week
Next week
  • http://facweb.cs.depaul.edu/nsutcliffe/483-00Currwork/LinksWeekly.htm#5

Lecture 4 Oct 3 2005