IFWA 1318-Nutrition Vitamins and Minerals Characteristics of Vitamins Very small amounts are needed by the body and very small amounts are in foods. The roles they play in the body are very important.
Vitamins and Minerals
Functions of Vitamin A
Vitamin A: Deficiency and Toxicity
Functions of Vitamin D
Vitamin D: Deficiency and Toxicity
Food Sources of Vitamin E
Food Sources of Vitamin C
Food Sources of Thiamin, Riboflavin, and Niacin
Sources of Vitamin B6
Vitamin B6: Deficiency and Toxicity
Sources of Vitamin B12
Vitamin B12 Deficiency
Phytochemicals: Substances such as beta-carotene that are found largely in fruits and veggies and that seem to be helpful in preventing cancer and/or heart disease when consumed regularly
Water and Minerals
Men: 3.7 liters/day
Women: 2.7 liters/day
Calcium deficiency is a major contributing factor in osteoporosis.
Amounts above UL can contribute to calcium deposits in kidneys and other organs
Rarely lacking in diet
Magnesium occurs in most foods in small amounts.
Inside the cells
Outside the cells
In the blood vessels
(Each day there is always a production of acid by the body’s metabolic processes and to maintain balance, these acids need to be excreted or metabolized. The various acids produced by the body are classified as respiratory (or volatile) acids and as metabolic (or fixed) acids. The body normally can respond very effectively to perturbations in acid or base production.)Functions of Electrolytes
Protein, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism
Development of sexual organs
General tissue growth and maintenance
Vitamin A activity
Protection of cell membranes from free-radical attacks
Storage and release of insulinZinc: Cofactor for Almost 100 Enzymes
Avoid zinc supplements unless prescribed.
Hypothyroidism is the disease state in humans and animals caused by insufficient production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. Historically, iodine deficiency was the most common cause of hypothyroidism world-wide. The disease may also be caused by a lack of thyroid gland or a deficiency of hormones from either the hypothalamus or the pituitary.(summary slide later)
Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which an overactive thyroid gland is producing an excessive amount of thyroid hormones that circulate in the blood. ("Hyper" means "over" in Greek). Thyrotoxicosis is a toxic condition that is caused by an excess of thyroid hormones from any cause. Thyrotoxicosis can be caused by an excessive intake of thyroid hormone or by overproduction of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.