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How the Internet Works Lunch and Learn Session April 12, 2001 Bill Vilberg Instructional Advancement Center Agenda Sorting the mail Driving the highways Tweaks and Utilities Appendix Sorting the Mail The US Postal Service analogy Note to your neighbor Postal Service Address envelope

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how the internet works

How the Internet Works

Lunch and Learn Session

April 12, 2001

Bill VilbergInstructional Advancement Center

agenda
Agenda
  • Sorting the mail
  • Driving the highways
  • Tweaks and Utilities
  • Appendix

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

sorting the mail

Sorting the Mail

The US Postal Service analogy

note to your neighbor postal service
Note to your neighborPostal Service
  • Address envelope
  • Deliver to neighbor

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

note to your neighbor computer network
Note to Your Neighbor Computer Network
  • Address is an IP number
    • 129.171.43.9
  • Neighbors have the same first digits
    • 129.171.43.x
  • Send message directly from your computer to your neighbor

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

note to your neighbor network diagram
Note to Your Neighbor Network Diagram

(129.171.43.9)

129.171.43.5

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

in town letters postal service
In-Town LettersPostal Service
  • Address envelope
  • Give to carrier
  • Sort at post office
  • Pass to carrier
  • Deliver to addressee

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

in town letters computer network
In-Town LettersComputer Network
  • Address message
  • Send to “gateway”
    • Gateway passes information beyond neighborhood and between networks
  • Deliver to addressee

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

in town letters network diagram
In-Town LettersNetwork Diagram

129.171.43.254

129.171.16.254

(129.171.43.9)

129.171.32.254

129.171.32.2

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

out of town letters postal service
Out of town lettersPostal Service
  • Address message
  • Give to carrier
  • Sort at post office
  • Sort at regional center
  • Sort at receiving post office
  • Pass to carrier
  • Deliver to addressee

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

out of town letters computer network
Out of town lettersComputer Network
  • Address envelope
  • Send to gateway
  • Pass on to gateway
  • Pass on to gateway
  • Pass on to gateway
  • Pass on to gateway…
  • Deliver to addressee

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

out of town letters network diagram
Out of Town LettersNetwork Diagram

.43.254

.43.9

.16.254

.16.253

.32.254

129.171.32.2

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

delivery rule computer network
Delivery RuleComputer Network
  • If the address is local, deliver it.
  • If the address is not local, send it to the gateway.
  • Define “local” from subnet mask.
    • 255.255.255.0 matches first three numbers
    • 255.255.0.0 matches the first two numbers

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

the three numbers
The Three Numbers
  • IP Number (Who am I?)
    • 129.171.43.9
  • Mask (Who are my neighbors?)
    • 255.255.255.0
  • Gateway (Who passes on my messages?)
    • 129.171.43.254

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

finding your three numbers
Finding Your Three Numbers
  • Windows 95/98
    • Start, Run, “winipcfg” to see
    • Start, Settings, Control Panel, Network, TCP, Properties to set
  • Windows NT
    • Command Prompt, “ipconfig” (?) to see
  • DEMO

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

delivery delays

Delivery Delays

Why isn’t it faster?

highway analogy
Highway Analogy
  • Highway: Cars and trucks drive on roads and streets
  • Network: Information packets are sent over wires

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

factor 1 speed of electricity
Factor 1: Speed of Electricity
  • Highway: Speed limit (absolute)
  • Network: Speed of light?

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

factor 2 speeds of devices
Factor 2: Speeds of Devices
  • Highway analogy: Speed that you drive, type of vehicle, toll plazas, rest stops, refueling stops
  • Network: Get faster equipment, network connections

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

factor 3 congestion collisions bottlenecks equipment failures
Factor 3: Congestion, Collisions, Bottlenecks, Equipment Failures
  • Highway analogy: What happens if an Interstate highway exits onto a dirt road?
  • Network: What happens in the red area of this network?

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

speeding delivery
Speeding Delivery
  • Faster computer
    • Faster CPU
    • More memory
  • Faster interface card/network connection
    • 56Kb hardware-based modem
    • Cable or DSL connection
    • 100 Mb Switched-Ethernet connection
  • Tweaks
    • (next section)

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

speed tests
Speed Tests
  • www.dslreports.com, Tools, Speed Tests
  • http://speedtest.mybc.com/
  • http://www.toast.net/performance/
  • http://www.fastaccesscentral.com/ (?)

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

tweaks use care
Tweaks (Use Care)
  • http://tweakhomepc.virtualave.net/thpc.html
  • http://www.dslreports.com/tweak
  • http://www.speedcorp.net/downloads.shtml
  • http://coverage.cnet.com/Content/Features/Howto/Netspeed/ss09.html

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

dns server
DNS Server
  • A Domain Name Server (DNS) converts names to numbers.
  • All Internet addresses are numbers.
  • Every name (www.miami.edu, www.microsoft.com, www.vilberg.com, www.courses.miami.edu, http://inst05.merrick.miami.edu) has a unique number associated with it.
  • UM Primary DNS = 129.171.32.1

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

proxy server
Proxy Server
  • A proxy server takes your message to someone else, and sends it on as a new message from itself. When a reply comes back, the proxy server sends the reply to you. To the other service it looks like everything is coming from the proxy server, not from you. This solves authentication/authorization problems.
  • See www.library.miami.edu, Databases, Remote Access Information for UM details.

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

dhcp server
DHCP Server
  • A DHCP server sets all of your numbers for you each time you use the Internet. It allows me to take my portable anywhere on campus and get the right numbers for that location.
  • The unique hardware address of your interface identifies you to the DHCP server. You can find this number at (Win 95/98) Start, Run, winipcfg

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

802 11 wireless
802.11 Wireless
  • A transmitter/receiver in your computer communicates through a series of transmitters/receivers distributed around the area.

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series

nethelper
NetHelper
  • http://www.zdnet.com/downloads/stories/info/0,,000SST,.html

Ed-Tech Lunch and Learn Series