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From EAD to METS. An overview and history of METS Rick Beaubien UC Berkeley. EAD and Ebind. EAD originated at UCB in Berkeley Finding Aid Project: 1993-1995 Applied in California Heritage Project (1995)

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from ead to mets

From EAD to METS

An overview and history of METS

Rick Beaubien

UC Berkeley

ead and ebind
EAD and Ebind
  • EAD originated at UCB in Berkeley Finding Aid Project: 1993-1995
  • Applied in California Heritage Project (1995)
    • Goals: Digitize collections pertaining to CA history, create EAD finding aids for these collections, and link the EADs to the content
      • Linking to single component objects (painting) easy
      • Linking to multi-page objects (book) difficult
  • SGML DTD developed at UCB by Alvin Pollock & Daniel Pitti
  • Key features
    • Provided means of specifying how the individual images comprising a digital version of an individual work fit together into a structured, coherent whole
    • Facilitated discovery of Ebind encoded digital objects
      • External: link to library catalog record
      • Internal: limited descriptive element set
making of america ii
Making of America II
  • DLF and NEH funded initiative commencing in 1997
  • Extension of EAD work
  • Participants: UC Berkeley (lead), Penn State, UCLA, Stanford, NYPL
  • Focus: creating an integrated but distributed digital library of archival materials
    • Cornerstone: digital object encoding standard
moa2 development process
MOA2 Development Process
  • Defined desired functionality of library digital objects.
  • Defined metadata needed to support requisite functionality
    • Distinguished three main types of metadata for Library Digital Objects
      • Structural (organize, view and navigate)
      • Descriptive (discovery)
      • Administrative (manage)
moa2 development process1
MOA2 Development Process
  • Codified the requisite metadata in an xml DTD: MOA2.DTD
    • XML DTD developed by Jerome McDonough
    • Direct predecessor of METS
moa2 dtd features
MOA2.DTD Features
  • Support for content and structure
    • Provided for inventorying the content files
    • Provided for applying one or more (hierarchical) structures to the content files
    • Limitations:
      • Accommodated image and text digital content only
      • Structural divisions could only reference integral image content files
        • No part of files, sequence of files or parallel file support
moa2 dtd features1
MOA2.DTD Features
  • Support for discovery & description:
    • Defined its own descriptive element set
    • Allowed content at all structural levels to:
      • Link to external desc md (finding aid, catalog record)
      • Link to internal desc md
    • Limitation: internal descriptive element set crude, UCB centric
moa2 dtd features2
MOA2.DTD Features
  • Support for management & preservation
    • Defined its own technical, source and rights md element sets
    • Provided for linking content files with these elements
    • Provided for embedding content files directly in an MOA2 object
    • Limitations: admin element sets preliminary and incomplete
from moa2 to mets
From MOA2 to METS
  • Response to MOA2.DTD
    • CDL adopts as its digital object standard
    • Other institutions try it
      • Focus on archival materials with image/text content felt to be too limited
      • Still, went a long ways towards meeting a need
    • DLF funded revision process:
      • Work commenced February 2001
      • Participants included LoC, NYU, Harvard, UC, Stanford, OCLC, RLG, MetaE (EU), et al
      • Outcome: METS schema
        • Jerry McDonough still the principal developer
mets and moa2 compared
METS and MOA2 compared
  • Support for content and structure
    • Expands content file support: any content
      • Supports Audio and Video content
      • No longer focused on archival materials
    • Enhances support for relationships between structure and content:
      • METS structural divisions can link to:
        • Integral files
        • Parts of files (defined by coordinates/shapes, time parms, tags/ids)
        • Sets of files or parts of files that must be played in sequence
        • Sets of files or parts of files that must be played in parallel
        • Other structural divisions in non-hierarchical, hypertext fashion
mets and moa2 compared1
METS and MOA2 compared
  • Support for discovery & description
    • Eliminates the MOA2 defined descriptive element set
    • Provides wrapper for externally defined descriptive element sets
      • Assumption: different communities need to develop own element sets for description
        • Numerous XML based descriptive element sets now available or in progress: MarcXML, MODS, DC, and VRA.
mets and moa2 compared2
METS and MOA2 compared
  • Support for management & preservation
    • Eliminates MOA2 defined administrative elements
    • Provides wrappers for externally defined administrative elements
      • Provides 4 types of admin wrappers: tech md, source md, digital provenance md, and rights md
      • Assumption: different communities need to develop own technical and rights element sets
mets in action
METS in Action
  • Institutions using METS
    • U.S: Library of Congress, California Digital Library, Harvard, MIT, RLG, NYU, Stanford, Florida Center for Library Automation, Berkeley Art Museum, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Indiana University Digital Library Program, et al
    • International: University of Alberta, Oxford, British Museum, Göttinger Digitalisierungs-Zentrum, National Library of Wales, National Library of Portugal, University of Graz, Biblioteca Digitale P. Albino, et al
mets in action1
METS in Action
  • Digital repository systems using/supporting METS
    • Greenstone (import and internal)
    • Fedora (import and export)
    • Dspace (import, export, possibly internal)
applications of mets
Applications of METS
  • Transfer syntax (SIP): exchanging digital content
  • Dissemination syntax (DIP): basis for presenting digital content to the end user
  • Preservation syntax (AIP): basis for preserving digital content in the long term
mets in context
METS in context
  • Other content packaging standards standards
    • IMS-CP
      • Comes out the learning technology community
    • MPEG21 (DIDL)
      • Coming out of commercial world
      • More abstract than METS
    • XFDU (XML Formatted Data Units)
      • Comes out of Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems
      • Used METS as starting point
      • Geared towards packaging/exchange of scientific datasets
mets in context1
METS in context
  • Attempts to bring different standards together.
    • IEEE initiative: RAMLET
      • Attempt to develop a reference model that will encompass the various content packaging schemas, and facilitate cross-walking and future harmonization.
  • METS homepage: