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Education for All. THE QUALITY IMPERATIVE. Education for All THE QUALITY IMPERATIVE. The world is not on track to achieve the six EFA goals Without better quality, EFA is unattainable

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Education for All

THE QUALITY IMPERATIVE

education for all the quality imperative
Education for AllTHE QUALITY IMPERATIVE
  • The world is not on track to achieve the six EFA goals
  • Without better quality, EFA is unattainable
  • This report defines education quality, shows why it matters and indicates how it can be improved, particularly in poorer countries
  • Achieving this and the other goals will require both policy change and more resources from the international community
progress towards upe
Out-of-school children by region (in millions), 2001Progress towards UPE

81.7% in 1990,

84% in 2001

NET ENROLMENT RATIOS IN PRIMARY EDUCATION

Pace of change too slow to reach UPE by 2015

103.5 million out-of-school children in 2001

Net enrolment ratio:

85% in 2005, 87% in 2015

progress towards gender parity
Gender parityProgress towards Gender Parity

57% of out of school children are girls

Girls’ enrolment lags behind boys’ in 40% of countries at primary level

Disparities more extreme at secondary and tertiary levels

literacy and adult learning
Gender parity

GPI (F/M) in adult literacy, 2000-2004

Literacy and adult learning

800 million adults without literacy, 70% live in nine countries

64% of adult illiterates are women

progress towards ecce
Progress towards ECCE

A strong influence on future school performance

  • Slow global progress: in the majority of countries, GER in pre-primary education is still below 50%
  • Children from disadvantaged backgrounds more likely to be excluded
  • Attendance rates considerably higher for urban children than those living in rural areas
overall progress
Overall progress

The EFA Development Index measures progress towards UPE, gender parity, literacy and quality

  • 41 countries have achieved or nearly achieved the four goals
  • 51 countries have EDI values between 0.80 and 0.94. Almost half the countries in this category, most of them in Latin America, lag on the education quality goal
  • 35countries are very far from achieving the goals, with EDI values below 0.80. 22are in Sub-Saharan Africa, plus Bangladesh, India and Pakistan
education quality goal 6
Education QualityGoal 6

“Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills”

Dakar Framework for Action, 2000

the quality challenge
The Quality Challenge

A good quality education encompasses:

  • Cognitive development: reading, writing, numeracy
  • Creative and emotional development and the promotion of attitudes and values necessary for effective life in the community

A good quality education carries personal and social benefits:

  • better health, lower fertility, lower exposure to HIV/AIDS
  • higher personal income
  • stronger national growth
education and hiv aids knowledge causes behaviour to change
Education and HIV/AIDS:Knowledge causes behaviour to change

HIV prevalence in rural Uganda (%) by education category, 1990-2001 (individuals aged 18-29)

learning from the evidence
Learning from the evidence

A wide range of evidence indicates that additional resources improve education quality, particularly where they are scare

  • Studies show that more resources for:
  • Low pupil-teacher ratios
  • more and better textbooks
  • time spent learning in school or at home
  • teacher qualifications and experience
  • matter for quality
how resources are used is important for quality
How resources are used is important for quality

Research on the characteristics of effective schools highlights the importance of the following factors:

  • strong leadership
  • emphasis on learning basic skills
  • orderly and secure school environment
  • high expectations of pupil attainment
  • frequent assessment of progress
rising to the challenge
Rising to the challenge

The report draws lessons from 11 “ambitious” and

“high-performing” countries on the quality front

The ambitious countries

Bangladesh, Brazil, Chile, Egypt, Senegal, South Africa and Sri Lanka

have introduced policies to expand access and address quality. Reforms focus on teachers, training, curriculum, management and achieving greater equity

The high-performing countries

Canada, Cuba, Finland and Republic of Korea

have achieved universal access, give teachers high status, have explicit vision of education’s objectives and policy continuity over time

quality diagnosis highlights
Quality diagnosis highlights

In many low-income countries more than one third

of children have limited reading skills even after

four to six years in school

  • Stark regional inequalities: a child in Africa spends five to six fewer years in school than one in Western Europe
  • Drop-out: in 30 out of 91 countries with data,less than 75% of children reach grade 5
  • Large classrooms: pupil-teacher ratios on the rise in countries where education has expanded rapidly.
  • Lack of teacher training and poor conditions of service hinder learning in many low-income countries.
quality diagnosis achievement tests
Quality diagnosis: achievement tests

International assessments point to weak performance

  • Southern Africa: in 4 countries less than 10% and in 3 others around one-third or less of tested grade 6 students reach a ‘desirable level’ in reading
  • Francophone Africa: in 6 countries, between 14% and 43% of grade 5 pupils have low achievement in French or mathematics
  • OECD countries: between 2% and 10% of 15-year-olds have serious deficiencies in literacy skills, whereas in middle and low-income countries, between 20% and 50% do so
quantity versus quality in primary schooling
% that has ever

% that

% that achieved

NER in primary

enrolled

survived to

minimum

for the period

Study

(ages 6-14)

grade 5

mastery

before the test

Country

Cohort

SACMEQ

Malawi

100

91

31

7

69

(1995)

Mauritius

100

99

98

52

99

Grade 6 Reading test

Namibia

100

97

74

19

84

U. R.Tanzania

100

87

70

18

54

PIRLS (2001)

Colombia

100

98

60

27

87

Grade 4 Reading test

Morocco

100

99

77

59

81

PASEC

Burkina Faso

100

35

25

21

28

(mid 1990s)

Cameroon

100

88

45

33

73

Grade 5 French test

Côte d’Ivoire

100

65

45

38

49

Guinea

100

48

32

21

36

Madagascar

100

78

31

20

63

Senegal

100

48

42

25

51

Togo

100

82

49

40

66

Quantity versus quality in primary schooling

Quantitative versus qualitative indicators of participation in primary schooling

towards better quality a holistic approach
Towards better quality: a holistic approach

Start with learners and take all actors into account

in the classroom investing in teachers
Primary education: pupil/teacher ratios and survival to the last grade, 2001In the classroom: investing in teachers

Only one-third of students reach last grade of primary education where pupil/teacher ratios are high

can conditions of service attract teachers
Can conditions of service attract teachers?

Real wages of teachers have declined relative to average incomes in low-income countries

  • In Africa, teacher earnings were lower in real terms in 2000 than they were in 1970
  • Earnings often too low to provide an acceptable standard of living: less than $2 a day in Sierra Leone government schools, but even less in community schools
  • Significant reductions from 1998-2001 in Argentina, Indonesia, Philippines, Tunisia and Uruguay
in the classroom pedagogical renewal
In the classroom:pedagogical renewal

Rigid chalk and talk pedagogy is widespread

  • Discovery-based pedagogies pioneered in many programmes are difficult to implement on national scale in resource-constrained contexts
  • Structured teaching is a pragmatic option in low-income settings. Teacher presents material in small steps, checks student understanding and encourages interaction
  • Regular assessment and feedback improves learning
other essentials that make the difference
Other essentials that make the difference
  • Curriculum: relevant, balanced with carefully defined aims
  • Instructional time: few countries reach recommended 850-1,000 hours/year
  • Learning materials: strong impact on learning but small percentage of education spending goes to textbooks
  • Language: Successful models start in mother tongue and make gradual transition to second or foreign language
  • School environment: safety, health, sanitation for girls and boys, access for disabled
beyond the classroom policies conducive to better quality
Beyond the classroom: policies conducive to better quality
  • Governance: school leadership, room for consultation between teachers, governments and other stakeholders on curriculum, employment and working conditions
  • Participatory learning networks and professional advisory bodies to encourage sharing of best practice
  • Combating corrupt practices: fraud in public tendering for school buildings and textbooks, nepotism and bribes in teacher appointment and examinations
  • Equity: reducing regional and social inequalities advances education for all
national resources finance and quality
National resources: finance and quality

In low income countries, increasing spending has a positive impact on learners’ cognitive achievement

  • 6% of GNP recommended on education spending not reached in majority of countries
  • Education spending higher in rich countries (5.1% of GNP) than in systems where access and quality remain a top challenge (under 4% in Africa and East Asia/Pacific)
  • Spendingincreases in East Asia and Pacific and Latin American and Caribbean in late 1990s, but -24% in Philippines; -8% in Indonesia
national resources finance and quality1
National resources: finance and quality

Students in countries that invest more in education tend to have better literacy skills. In high-income states, the impact of additional resources is less clear

international commitments the need for sustained investment
International commitments: the need for sustained investment
  • The Dakar Pledge: No country seriously committed to education will be thwarted by lack of resources
  • Bilateral and multilateral aid to basic education = $1.54 billion
  • New pledges could increase aid to $3.2 billion
  • This falls short of $5.6 billion additional resources to achieve UPE and gender parity goals
  • Fast Track Initiative: total resources so far raised are tiny compared with requirements. Even in the first ten countries endorsed, a financing gap of $200 million remains
improving aid effectiveness
Improving aid effectiveness
  • Eight donors account for 85% of bilateral aid to education
  • All donors -except Finland - that give relatively high priority to education aid make post-secondary the most important level
  • Fragmented programmes: donors disburse aid to an average 63 countries; recipient countries dealt on average with seven to twelve bilateral donors in 2001-2002
  • Few studies link aid and better learning outcomes
wrapping up
Wrapping up

Education quantity and quality are complements, not substitutes

  • Successful qualitative reforms require:
  • Prime attention to quality of teaching profession
  • Strong leading role by government
  • A societal project for improving education
  • Policy continuity over time

EFA Global Monitoring Report

www.efareport.unesco.org / [email protected]

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