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Doctoral Studies System - third cycle in higher education in Republic of Macedonia prof. Marika Basheska – Gjorgjieska, PhD UKLO - Bitola, Faculty of Economics -Prilep
Doctoral studies in the context of the Bologna Declaration: • Berlin, 2003, (Berlin Communiqué) the doctoral studies for the first time are added as a third cycle of studies in the higher education. • it underlines the importance of the relation between the third cycle of education and the research as the first phase in the career of the young researchers, that is the link between the European higher education (ENEA) and the research field (ERA). • Bergen Communique (May 2005) further stresses the importance of the strengthening of the synergy in the higher education and research.
ЕAUgives the doctorate a main priority • The project “Doctoral Programmes for European Knowledge Society” opens the dialogue among the universities and the ministries of education about reforms in doctoral programs. • In 2005 in Salzburg it was held the Bologna seminar and were agreed and passed ten basic principles of the future development of the doctoral programs.
London Conference of the ministers of education in 2007 • The European Association of Universities is preparing a report for the future development of the doctoral programs and the basic principles of their functioning • it is restated once again that the doctoral programs present a third cycle in education and at the same time present a first phase in the career of the young researchers. • It is also stated in the Report that the key component of the third cycle is the knowledge progress achieved through original research which makes the third cycle exclusive and different from the first and the second. • That is why the phase of training in the doctoral studies is the main link between the areas of higher education and research. • Special attention should be paid to the adjustments between the second and the third cycle.
In the Republic of Macedonia: • The first two cycles of education are established and in the biggest number of cases function in accordance with Bologna • gaining a doctorate of science is not yet in the system of doctoral studies
The project DOCSTUD • having in mind: • the knowledge about the way of organization and functioning of the systems in the countries where the partners of the project come from, • the conditions of functioning of the first two cycles of education in MK, as well as the entire surrounding, • the consortium of the project has prepared a system of doctoral studies
The basis of the proposed doctoral studies model mainly comes from • Bologna process - Bologna declaration (1999), all other relevant documents • EU partners Universities experience • EUA Publications • Law for higher education in MK regarding the doctoral studies • The real conditions and processes in the area of higher education in MK and the way of their transformation according to Bologna and European higher educational standards
Legal Framework for PhD Studies • According to HEL of MK: • The third cycle of university studies – PhD studies has duration of three years and a student can earn 180 ECTS. • admission to the PhD degree programmes assumes prior completion of a second cycle of academic studies. • The University regulates the acquirement of the ECTS credits at the doctoral studies with a common act, and announces the ECTS credits necessary for submission of the doctoral dissertation.
The PhD studies are considered as completed after completion of all courses and after submission and public defense of the PhD dissertation. • With a public defence of the doctoral dissertation, an academic title Doctor of Science (dr.sc) is acquired
1. Applying and Admission Criteria • Candidates apply for admission to a doctoral programme based on an announced Competition. The terms and criteria for applying and admission to the Doctoral Programme. • Upon proposal by the Scientific Faculty Council, the Rectorate Board of the University approves: • Admission criteria, number of candidates, tuition fees. • Competition for Admission is announced by the University at leastfive months before the start of the Doctoral Studies.
Applying criteria for doctoral studies are the following: • Previous completion of a second cycle of studies; • Compatibility of the second cycle profile to the profile of the Doctoral Programme; • For the candidates coming from related scientific area, the university/faculty/programme states additional conditions for admission.
2. Academic Bodies • University bodies responsible for third cycle study programme implementation– doctoral studies, are the following: • Council of Doctoral Studies at the University level (University Council of Doctoral Studies) • Council of Doctoral Studies at the level of the University Unit
The Council of Doctoral Studies at the University level (University Council of Doctoral Studies) • is consisted of: • (1) the Heads of University Units of the doctoral programmes • (2) the responsible Vice-Rector/s • (3) three more members who are full-time professors (from different scientific areas) • proposed by the Rector and approved by the University Senate • with a mandate of 3 or 4 years. • the duration of the mandate for the rest of the members corresponds to the duration of the mandate of their positions. • The Vice-Rector for Science and Education chairs the Council of Doctoral Studies.
The Council of Doctoral Studies at the level of the University Unit is consisted of: • 5 professors from the university unit selected by the Scientific Faculty Council • 2 professors from corresponding scientific areas from the university selected by the University Council of Doctoral Studies, based on the proposal of the Scientific Faculty Council. • The Head and the Administrator of the doctoral studies of the university unit are selected by the Scientific Faculty Council with a three-year mandate • The mandate of the Council’s members lasts three years. • The Head of the Council of Doctoral Studies chairs the Council.
3. Administrative Logistics • The administrative support of the doctoral studies and the academic units will be carried out by Administrative Offices on a: • University level, and • University Unit level
4. Doctoral Studies Structure • Doctoral studies can be only academic. • The Doctoral studies are consisted of two phases: • Phase of training for research • Phase of doctoral dissertation
As soon as the candidate is admitted to a Doctoral programme, he/she gains a status of a student of Doctoral studies • After completing the first phase, i.e. after the preparation and the positive evaluation of the thesis proposal, the student acquires the status of PhD candidate
5. Procedure and competences • First phase: • First year : • Academic courses and / or seminars • Isemester– courses and / or doctoral seminars • Compulsory • Research Methodology for Social Sciences • General course from the scientific area of the doctoral programme
II semester – courses and / or doctoral seminars • Elective courses –3 out of 5 are elected by the candidate • Seminar – research methods in the area of specialization; • Seminar – teaching methods; • Seminar for improving the writing skills Second year • Pilot Research Work • III semester - Pilot Research Work • Pilot Research Work – around 20 pages, on a topic concerning the actual research area, evaluated by a Mentor.
Second Phase: Second and third year: • Applying, preparing and defending the Doctoral dissertation • To make a contribution through original research that broadens the previously acquired knowledge.
Preparation of thesis proposal • Original research conducted by the candidate • Application of the thesis proposal and their defence • Decision on the eligibility of the thesis title and the candidate is made by the Council of Doctoral Studies at the Unit level • Doctoral dissertation thesis is approved by and defended in front of a Commission consisted of three members, all involved in a scientific field. The Commission is consisted of: one faculty member, one university member and one member from a different university (national or international).
Mentorship • Is organized by two mentors: internal and external. The internal mentor belongs to the PhD study programme unit, while the external mentor comes from the university at which the unit is a member or from other university.
Doctoral dissertation and preparation • The dissertation should be written in the frame of 200 to 300 pages • During the second phase, the dissertation phase, the candidate is obliged to submit reports to his/her mentors on his/her progress twice a year.
The dissertation is evaluated by a Commission consisted of 5 members given as following: the internal mentor, two professors from the University Unit and two members from the university or from a different university. • The evaluation report is submitted to the Council of Doctoral Studies at the level of the University Units which examines it and proposes its approval to the Scientific Faculty Council of the Unit. The report is also submitted to the University Council of Doctoral Studies and is published in the University Bulletin.
Public defence of the PhD dissertation • The defence of the dissertation is public and is held in the offices of the University Unit at which the Doctoral studies are organized. • The public defence of the dissertation is held in front of a five member Commission which normally has the same composition as the Evaluation Commission. The decision about the Commission’s composition is made at the same session of the Scientific Faculty Council during which it approves the evaluation report.
The findings of the Doctoral dissertation are disposed in a form of dissemination on a University level • The findings of the Doctoral dissertation are published in the University's scientific journal, and possibly in at least one other scientific journal in a time no more than a year after the defence of the Doctoral dissertation.
6. Allocation of ECTS • For the academic courses/seminaries in the first semester students obtain 30 credits • For the courses/seminaries in the second semester, the students obtain 30 credits. • For the Pilot Research Work and the thesis proposal in the third semester students obtain 30 credits • They obtain 90 credits for the phase of the doctoral dissertation.
7. Language of the Doctoral studies • The courses, seminars and exams will be held in Macedonian/Albanian and most of the written materials will be in Macedonian/Albanian, while for some parts in the procedure (for instance –dissertation’s defence) English can be used. • The Doctoral dissertation must be written in Macedonian/Albanian. • The University Council of Doctoral Studies/University Unit decides in which parts English may be used.
8. Doctoral studies financing • The candidates for Doctoral studies cover the studying expenses mainly by: • Self-financing • Using the academic job possibilities (organizing exercises for students) • Using state granted scholarships • Using international scholarships