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Close Encounters of the Cultural Kind

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    3. 3 Cultural Awareness for Volunteering in Australia: Workshop Outline Volunteering in Australia What is volunteering? The benefits of volunteering Cultural Awareness Understanding culture and cultural adaptation Working with Australians: Finding the 3rd Culture How to Volunteer Volunteering Opportunities Becoming a Volunteer

    4. 4 What is Volunteering? Volunteering is seen in different ways and is called by different names, but helping the community is a universal value in all cultures. People all over the world offer their help to others free of charge. They do this for friends (informally) and through organisations (formally).

    5. 5 What is Volunteering? Formal volunteering is an activity which usually takes place through organisations and is done To benefit the community and the volunteer Of the volunteers own free will For no financial payment In designated volunteer positions only

    6. 6 Who Volunteers in Australia? Over 6 million Australians are volunteers, helping organisations in; Emergency services Welfare Environment and conservation Teaching Fundraising Managing and administration

    7. 7 The Benefits of Volunteering: Why do people volunteer? Helping their community Personal satisfaction Making friends and having fun Gaining skills and work experience Putting values and beliefs into practice

    8. 8 What are some other benefits of volunteering for new & emerging community members to Australia? Increase your understanding of the services available to your community Help your community and society Increase your understanding of and adjustment to Australian society Improve your English skills Increased acceptance and belonging

    9. 9 Why does [our organisation] want newcomers to Australia to volunteer? New perspectives and ideas New skills Languages Understanding different communities Contacts in new communities A wider pool of volunteers and future staff

    10. 10 Why does [our organisation] want new people to Australia to volunteer? [Our Organisations] Values [Our Organisations] Values Insert, eg. Service to the community Insert, e.g Respect for all people Insert, e.g Inclusion of all people

    11. 11 The importance of values Your values are important to you and others They define what you believe They guide how you behave and how you expect others to behave

    12. 12 All Cultures Share Core Human Values Respect for human dignity Respect for basic rights Good citizenship The Golden Rule: Do unto others These values are expressed and upheld in culturally different ways.

    13. 13 Linking personal and organisational values through volunteering Choosing the right organisation for you to volunteer with is important Learning about the values of an organisation is an important first step A successful volunteering experience = Matching your values with those of an organisation and Helping the organisation fulfill its mission

    14. 14 Cultural Diversity in Australia: Group Profile Group Profile Your name Your country of birth Your parents country or countries of birth

    15. 15 High Context Low Context Cultures Cultures Spanish Greek Italian Arabic English Vietnamese Australian Japanese U.S.A Korean Swedish Chinese German Aboriginal Organisational Cultures Cultures

    16. 16 Cultural Diversity in Volunteering: Key Statistics* for South Australia 21% born in more than 200 countries: 10% from English-speaking countries 11% from non-English speaking countries Top 10 new migrant source countries: United Kingdom, India, China, Philippines, Afghanistan, South Africa, Korea, Malaysia, Vietnam and Iran Other new and emerging communities: Sudan, Thailand, Congo, Burma, Bhutan, Iraq, Kenya, Liberia, Zimbabwe, Burundi and Ethiopia *ABS Census 2006

    17. 17 Understanding Culture Generalising vs Stereotyping When we study and compare cultures we need to make general observations of the way people do things. But we also need to remember we are dealing with individuals, not cultures. It is necessary to understanding the difference between generalising and stereotyping.

    18. 18 Generalising vs Stereotyping Australians tend to be individualistic Germans tend to value efficiency and formality U.S. Americans tend to praise personal success highly Australians are selfish Germans are uptight Americans are show-offs

    19. 19 Understanding Culture What is "Culture"? The learned and shared behaviour of a society, its common sense. A societys set of spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features. Its the way we do things around here.

    20. 20 Understanding Culture: Whats different about Australian culture? Obsession with sport Families dont always live nearby or stay in close touch Many people dont practice a religion Being expected to be actively involved in your childrens education Strangers asking How are you today? Being invited to a party and asked to bring a plate or told its B.Y.O.

    21. 21 Understanding "Culture" The central question to ask about different cultural views and actions is: Why? Why do they do things that way? Why do we do things this way?

    22. 22 The Four Basic Elements of Intercultural Communication

    23. 23 Verbal Behaviour Accent: I love/cant stand that accent! Tone of Voice:Dont take that tone with me Volume: Why do they talk so loudly? Rates of Speech: Australians talk so fast! Jargon and Slang: Ramp up. Bludger

    24. 24 Verbal Behaviour Metaphors: Dont beat around the bush. Idioms: Pull your socks up Swearing: Gday you old bastard. Joking: Just kidding. Cant you take a joke?

    25. 25 Verbal Behaviour: Australian Humour Making sarcastic or cynical comments about others, giving them insulting nicknames WHY? Testing a persons sense of self-importance and sense of humour. A social levelling tool. RESPONSE: Laugh it off. Return the favour Making fun of, mocking others achievements WHY? Tall poppy syndrome another way of social levelling and reducing power imbalance RESPONSE: Accept in a spirit of joking humility.

    26. 26 Verbal Behaviour: Australian Humour Casual and constant joking and banter or teasing humour at work. WHY? Informality is valued. Joking is a way of being friendly and a good way of getting things done. RESPONSE: Dont take offence. Dont interpret as not being serious about work. Telling tall tales untrue stories or facts in a serious voice to trick the listener. WHY? Social levelling by reducing others seriousness and testing their sense of humour RESPONSE: Laugh at the trick. You had me there!

    27. 27 Verbal Behaviour: Australian Swearing Swearing casually, inserting rude words into general conversation. (More neutral tone of voice.) WHY?Another form of informality and social levelling RESPONSE: Dont take it personally. Dont interpret it as anger or aggression Swearing seriously to intentionally insult, criticise or complain. (Harsh or loud tone of voice.) WHY? Expressing anger, disapproval, aggression. RESPONSE: Apologise for, or verbally defend, your actions or intentions.

    28. 28 Verbal Behaviour: Organisational Culture and Etiquette Introductions and Conversation Direct approach to people is acceptable Introduction by third party valuable Use of first names on first meeting Some topics of conversation, such as politics and religion can be unsafe but opinions are respected, and frankness valued Humour, including banter, is appreciated Language: Ask if terms, jargon, slang, idiom are confusing.

    29. 29 Non-Verbal Behaviour: Australian Norms People normally stand about 1 meter apart Direct but not intense eye contact is expected Except for handshakes, people dont touch each other very much. Women dont always shake hands If unsure, ask about what dress standards are expected People only kiss friends in public and only once on the cheek.

    30. 30 Communication Style: Australian Norms State your case directly, not indirectly Silence in a conversation is uncomfortable Use of humour and irony is common Impolite to interrupt someone, but turn taking in conversation takes practice Yes means yes

    31. 31 Communication Style: Organisational Culture and Etiquette Low on formality and high on informality First name basis very early Hierarchy is recognised but little deference is shown Titles and honorifics rarely used More respect for achievement than position Dress codes fairly relaxed but observe others and ask if not sure

    32. 32 Communication Style: Meetings Punctuality is highly valued. Call if running late (late = 10-15 minutes) Never arrive unannounced. Arrange meetings well ahead if possible. Meetings are time- and agenda-driven Some small talk at beginning is acceptable and expected, but only briefly People tend to get to the point quickly

    33. 33 Dimensions of Cultural Values High Context Low Context Cultures Cultures Spanish Greek Italian Arabic English Vietnamese Australian Japanese U.S.A Korean Swedish Chinese German Aboriginal Organisational Cultures Cultures

    34. 34 The Dimensions of Cultural Values High Context Cultures Members share and need to have a deeper, more complex body of understood experience and assumptions as the basis of cooperation. Who you are Low Context Cultures Members have and need less shared knowledge as basis for cooperation. Defined roles and codes take the place of assumptions. What you do

    35. 35 Values and Attitudes High Context Cultures Collectivist Being-oriented Long term view Given status Verbal agreements Formal Low Context Cultures Individualist Doing-oriented Short term view Achieved status Written agreements Informal

    36. 36 Australian Organisations: Values and Attitudes Organisations value equality and fairness, but these are not always practiced Informality is a sign of equality Structures are flatter, communication between levels is more direct Groups recognise members as individuals first, group members second Change is part of working life

    37. 37 Australian Organisations: Values and Attitudes Strong focus on time efficiency and deadlines Planning is usually short term Results are more important than relationships Workplace relationships do not necessarily or usually extend into personal life People work to live, not live to work

    38. 38 Understanding Cross-Cultural Adaptation Immigrants: Change by choice Own decision. Preparation. Resources. Networks. Stronger sense of identity, self-worth, competence, security, belonging and acceptance. Looking forward. Refugees: Change by chance Others decision. Little or no preparation. No or very few resources. Limited or no networks. Weaker sense of identity, self-worth, competence, security, belonging and acceptance. Looking backward.

    39. 39 Common Intercultural Fears Making a fool of oneself Being ridiculed, offended or embarrassed Embarrassing or offending someone Giving or getting wrong information Making or forming a bad impression Becoming or appearing confused Being excluded, rejected, lonely

    40. 40 Stages of Cultural Adaptation 1: Contact/Honeymoon 2: Disintegration/Disorientation 3: Re-integration/ Irritability & Hostility 4: Autonomy/Adjustment & Integration 5: Independence/ Biculturality

    41. 41 Stages of Cultural Adaptation Stage 1: Contact/ Honeymoon Differences are interesting Insulated by own culture Perceptions of new culture screened by own culture Excitement, stimulation, discovery Curious, assured, positive

    42. 42 Stages of Cultural Adaptation Stage 2: Disintegration/Disorientation Differences, contrasts have more impact, begin to intrude Loss of cultural support from home culture Misreading new cultural cues Confusion, isolation, apathy, feelings of inadequacy, loss of self-esteem Depression, withdrawal

    43. 43 Stages of Cultural Adaptation Stage 3: Reintegration/Irritability and Hostility Differences are rejected Anger, rage, nervousness, anxiety, frustration Suspicion, rejection, exclusion, opinionated Rejection of the new culture Pre-occupation with likes and dislikes Self-assertive Growing self-esteem

    44. 44 Stages of Cultural Adaptation Stage 4: Autonomy/Adjustment & Integration Differences and similarities are recognised Self-assured, confident, relaxed, warm Can negotiate most new situations Assured of ability to deal with new experiences

    45. 45 Stages of Cultural Adaptation Stage 5: Independence/Biculturality Differences and similarities valued, accepted, important Trust, humour, love, full expression Capable of choice, creating meaning for situations

    46. 46 The Intensity of the Cultural Adaptation Experience Increases when Cultures & languages are very different We are immersed in the new culture We feel isolated from our own culture We have little intercultural experience Our expectations are not met We are visibly different from majority We have lost status, power and control

    47. 47 Cultural Adaptation: Summary Most people experience similar feelings and stages of disorientation in a new culture Can result in a range of issues, emotions and behaviours Adaptation happens at different speeds for different people Involvement in volunteering can help people adjust to the new culture

    48. 48 Cross-Cultural Bridge Building: Learning How to Communicate and Work As Equals In Australia, we will always come into contact with people from many different cultures, with Different perspectives Different experiences Different ways of doing things The key to living and working as equals is to communicate across the invisible gaps between cultures and understand the values that are shared.

    49. 49 Bridging Intercultural Gaps: The Iceberg Metaphor

    50. 50 Bridging Intercultural Gaps: The Iceberg Metaphor Culture A: Visible Little eye contact Low volume speech Invisible: Values Respect Politeness Interpretation of B Aggressive & Rude Culture B: Visible Direct eye contact High volume speech Invisible: Values Equality Directness Interpretation of A Evasive & Weak

    51. 51 Bridging Intercultural Gaps: Building the Bridge Talk about and explain your feelings and reactions to observed words and actions Ask about the others feelings and reactions to your words and actions Explore and agree on ways of communicating that are mutually acceptable

    52. 52 Key Factors for Bridging Intercultural Gaps Understand your own cultural values, assumptions and expectations Why do we behave the way we do? Learn about those of other cultures Why do they behave the way they do? Discover ways to work as equals Discuss and explain key differences Find the Third Culture

    53. 53 Cross-Cultural Bridge Building Finding the Third Culture

    54. 54 Cross-Cultural Bridge Building: Finding the Third Culture When people from differing cultures meet and talk about their preferred ways of communicating and working, they build a bridge of understanding between them that enables them to work together as equals in a third culture

    55. 55 Cultural Awareness in Volunteering: Close Differences do not necessarily mean barriers; they can become bridges to understanding and the enrichment of our lives. Robert Moran, Managing Cultural Differences, 1991 In [Our Organisation] we welcome and celebrate our differences as we work together to help our community.

    56. 56 How to Become a Volunteer in [Our Organisation] Volunteering opportunities List What is expected of you Commitment etc What you can expected of us Training Support etc How to apply How to apply

    57. 57 [Our Organisation Logo] [Our Organisation] welcomes you