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Ice Storage Permanently Reduces Peak Demand. Building A/C is the big demand problem 80 Million installed, 7+ Million units shipped last year. ~10% of building annual kW-hours, 45% of building peak demand.

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Presentation Transcript
ice storage permanently reduces peak demand
Ice Storage Permanently Reduces Peak Demand

Building A/C is the big demand problem

80 Million installed, 7+ Million units shipped last year

~10% of building annual kW-hours, 45% of building peak demand

Source: PG&E Program Advisory Group for Energy Efficiency: HVAC PAG White Paper, Proctor Engineering

market transformation with ice storage air conditioning
Market Transformation with Ice Storage Air Conditioning

“Ice Energy Summer Day” Load Profile

Slashing A/C demand by 35%, every day

Residential A/C

Commercial A/C

Storing Wind Power

Commercial Lighting

Base load

6 a.m.

12 noon

6 p.m.

ice storage creates a market for off peak wind power
Ice Storage Creates a Market for Off-Peak Wind Power

Typical Summer Day

Wind Power Generation



  • On-Shore wind rarely blows on hot summer days
    • 95% is off-peak
  • Air conditioning load shift is a direct off-set for fossil fueled peakers
    • Shifts daytime fossil fuel and its emissions to nighttime wind

System Demand

Source: 2006 California Energy Commission report

ice storage heals the planet

Source & Site Energy Savings

Ice Storage Heals the Planet

Peak vs. Off-peak CO2 Emission Rate* (Tons/MWh)

Source for Carbon Credits

Reduced Greenhouse

Gas Emissions

Heavy AC Use

Reduced Smog Potential on 2% days

*Southern California Edison Data

  • 56% lower NOx emission rate during off-peak
  • 40% lower CO2 greenhouse gas emissions
ice energy s zero loss storage breakthrough
Ice Energy’s Zero Loss Storage Breakthrough

Ice Energy Storage Module

  • Cooling capacity is created during the night by freezing water
    • Off-the-shelf product, over the counter permit
    • Best electric condensing unit efficiency
    • Efficiency, not curtailment
  • Stored cooling energy is delivered during the peak of the day
    • Electric condenser “locked out”
    • Superior cooling comfort and dehumidification
    • The water never leaves the tank
    • 300 watts on-peak vs. 10,000 watts (300 EER on-peak)
    • 6 hour storage, 60 kW-hr
    • 20+ year life, unlimited deep cycles
a c energy efficiency increases as temperatures drop
A/C Energy Efficiency Increases as Temperatures Drop

Average difference between daily high & low is ~22° F

Store Distributed Energy Efficiently at Night

temperature change and co 2 concentration
Temperature Change and CO2 Concentration

We are experiencing a warming trend


Actual Performance During the July 2006 Heat Storm








Peak Shift

Peak Shift

Peak Shift

Peak Shift

Peak Shift

Peak Shift

Peak Shift

July 2006

Peak Shift

air conditioning energy demand sets market prices
Air Conditioning Energy Demand Sets Market Prices

Highest Cost Energy

Real Time

Energy Cost

Conventional AC Energy Consumption

storage transforms the market true ratepayer relief
Storage Transforms the Market = True Ratepayer Relief

Lowest Cost Energy

Real Time

Energy Cost

Ice Energy AC Energy Consumption

demand response versus permanent load reduction
Demand Response versus Permanent Load Reduction

Demand Response

A/C Cycling

Significant On-Peak Cost




TDV = time dependent value of energy; for additional information search: TDV cookbook

storage a c eliminates the on peak energy problem
Storage A/C Eliminates the On-Peak Energy Problem

Insignificant On-Peak Cost




1 smart grid appliance for energy arbitrage
#1 Smart Grid Appliance for Energy Arbitrage

Energy efficient storage breaks the dependency

between comfort and high cost energy

Peak hour AC comfort at low cost

Emergency &

high price signal

uses stored energy

Low price signal

stores energy

new peaking capacity is very expensive
New Peaking Capacity is Very Expensive

Anaheim Public Utilities

Thermal Energy Storage Program (TES)



45 MW1 Energy Distributed Energy Storage Plant versus 50 MW Peaker (Muni)

Assumptions: 15 years, 7.5 kW peak demand reduction/unit, 6,000 units, 2,000 buildings

Anaheim Public Utilities

Thermal Energy Storage Program (TES)


Anaheim Public Utilities

Thermal Energy Storage Program (TES)

strong alignment with public policy goals
Strong Alignment with Public Policy Goals
  • Permanently reduce peak demand 1% per year for 10 Years
  • Savings on energy & capacity
  • Savings on T&D line losses and expenditures
  • Savings on greenhouse gas emissions
  • Improve grid reliability; relieve thermal stress on distribution circuit substations, wires, and building transformers
  • Insulation against the impact of 1 in 10 heat driven events
  • Create a market for off-peak renewable wind energy
  • Improve the value of intermittent Solar PV
  • Applicable to majority of utility customer base
  • Local economic development
  • Decouple Utility Profits from KW-hr sales
    • Put utilities in the energy efficiency and demand reduction business
  • Mandate the use of cost effective Demand Side Resources
    • Integrated Resource Plan includes Energy Efficiency and Demand Reduction
  • Allow preferential rates of return for distributed energy storage
    • Distribution asset equivalent or better rate of return (rate base storage)
    • Valued on an equal footing with new peaking capacity, energy, and emissions
    • Reduce the emphasis on silo “programs”
  • Increase building end use efficiency and reduce peak demand
    • Adopt 8760 hourly energy usage models (search TDV Cookbook)
  • Develop tariffs and customer incentives that support the use of storage
    • 4-hour on-peak demand periods, higher off-peak energy differential
  • Contact your U.S. Representatives and Senators
    • Support accelerated depreciation and investment tax credit status for energy storage assisted air conditioning (e-mail
thank you

Gregory Tropsa, President