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Chapter 9 Applicable Law for International Arbitration

Chapter 9 Applicable Law for International Arbitration

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Chapter 9 Applicable Law for International Arbitration

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  1. Chapter 9 Applicable Law for International Arbitration

  2. Applicable Law in Int’l Arb. • Applicable law for the arbitration agreement • Applicable law for the arbitration procedure • Applicable for merits of the case

  3. Applicable Law for Arbitration Agreement • Arbitration agreement : contract between the parties to settle their dispute by arbitration • Principles of private international law or conflict of law rules in national law

  4. General Principles of Private International Law • Parties’ autonomy • Closest relationship with the contract • Compulsory application of particular law in different countries

  5. Chinese Practices • CAL, Contract Law 1999 • Art.16, Judicial Interpretation of CAL in 2006 • First – that of selected by the parties • Second – that of the seat of arbitration • Lastly - that of the national court

  6. Development in the Field • The national court should make the international arbitration agreement effect as possible as it can. • Art.187 of Swiss PL: an arbitration agreement is valid if it conforms either to the law chosen by the parties, or to the law governing the subject matter of the dispute, in particular the main contract, or to Swiss law.

  7. Zueblin Case • Construction agreement with FIDIC Green Book General Conditions by reference in its appendix:Arbitration 15.3 ICC Rules Shanghai shall apply • Woco brought the lawsuit to the Ct. • Zueblin brought the case to ICC for Arbitration

  8. Zueblin Case (2) • Court decided its jurisdiction according to local law; • Arbitral tribunal decides its jurisdiction according to the arbitration agreement and the applied ICC Rules. • Court refused enforcement due to the invalid arbitration agreement.

  9. AL of the Arb. Procedure • Whether the parties may select to apply procedure law of the other country? • Process to negotiate NYC • Nationality of the award

  10. Deciding Authority • Arbitration institution • Arbitration tribunal • National court

  11. Union of India v. Mcdonell Douglas Corporation (269) • The applicable law of the arbitration • “In the event of dispute or difference arising out of or in connection with this agreement, which cannot be resolved by amicable settlement, the same shall be referred to an arbitration tribunal consisting of three members………The arbitration shall be conducted in accordance with the procedure provided in the Indian Arbitration Act of 1940 or any reenactment or modification thereof……The seat of the arbitration proceedings shall be London……

  12. Indian Supreme Ct. Case • National Thermal Power Corporation (India) v. The Singer Company (USA) • Construction Contract with arbitration clause: ICC Rules, seat decided by ICC, Indian law apply • Award made in London • Indian ct. refused enforcement and set aside the award

  13. Conclusion of AL in Procedure • The seat decided the applicable law for the arbitration procedure; • The seat could be decided by the parties, and by the arbitration institution or the court in the absence of the agreement between the parties

  14. Chinese Practices • No special provision on the seat apart from CIETAC, but the name of arbitration commission; • The location of the arbitration commission is usually considered as the seat of arbitration, since there is no distinction between the seat, the place of hearing and that of deliberation of the case by the tribunal.

  15. Applicable Law for Zueblin Case • Arbitration agreement • Arbitration procedure • Merits of the case (main contract)

  16. AL for Int’l Arb. Agreement • NYC has no provision • National law decides the issue

  17. Delocalized Arbitration • Denationalized arbitration • International award has no relation with the legal order of any country • Such award is floating until it is enforced.

  18. Gotaverken Case 1980 • Gotaverken (Sweden) v. Libyan General National Maritime Transport • ICC Rules, Paris • French court refused setting aside the award on the ground of lack of jurisdiction; • The Swedish court enforced the award.

  19. SEEE Case • SEEE (France) v. Yugoslavia • K to build railway in 1932 • Award made by two arbitrators in Vaud, Switzerland in 1956 • Court in Vaud refused setting aside because Art.514 of Vaud CPL required uneven number of arbitral tribunal. The award was a Swiss award. • The Dutch court enforced the award as Swiss award in 1973, while the French court enforced it as a-national award made in another NYC member state.

  20. Chromalloy Case (1996,US) • Chromalloy Aeroservices Inc. (USA) v. Ministry of Defence (MOD) of the Republic of Egypt • Contract of sale and service for 4 years • MOD terminated K before it expired • Arbitrated and set aside in Egypt • French and US court ruled to enforce

  21. AL for the Merits of the Case • What law should be applied to decide the merits of the case? • Proper law (applicable law) of the contract

  22. Basic Principles • Parties’ autonomy • Closest relationship with the contract • General principles of law, lex mercatoria, law merchant

  23. Norsolor(France) v. Pabalk(Turkey) at 381 • Agency contract with arbitration clause • Arbitrated by ICC sole-arbitrator tribunal in Vienna • Tribunal applied neither law of the parties, but equity • Whether the tribunal may rule in equity as amiable compositeurs

  24. Harmonization of the Applicable Law in International Contract • CISG: Vienna Convention on Contract for the International Sales of Contract by UNCITRAL • Principles of European Contract Law • UNIROIT (International Institute for Unification of Private Law) Principles for International Commercial Contract

  25. Application the Uniform Law in the International Arbitration • Art.17 of ICC Rules • (1) The parties shall be free to agree upon the rules of law to be applied by the Arbitral Tribunal to the merits of the dispute. In the absence of any such agreement, the Arbitral Tribunal shall apply the rules of law which it determines to be appropriate. • (2) In all cases the Arbitral Tribunal shall take account of the provisions of the contract and the relevant trade usages. • (3) The Arbitral Tribunal shall assume the powers of an amiable compositeur or decide ex aequo et bono only if the parties have agreed to give it such powers.

  26. Art.1474 French CCP • The arbitrator shall decide the dispute according to the rules of the law unless the parties have authorized him in the arbitration agreement to rule as amicable compositeur.

  27. Chinese Practices • Contract Law 1999 • Parties’ autonomy in general in priority: provisions in the contract • Compulsory applicable law for the particular contracts: joint venture contracts • Application of bilateral and multilateral convention