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Chapter 6 Sexual Arousal and Response. Sexual Arousal. The role of hormones Steroid hormones testosterone: male sex hormones produced by testes, adrenal glands, & ovaries estrogen: female sex hormone produced by ovaries & testes Neuropeptide hormones oxytocin. Sexual Arousal (cont.).

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sexual arousal
Sexual Arousal
  • The role of hormones
    • Steroid hormones
      • testosterone: male sex hormones
        • produced by testes, adrenal glands, & ovaries
      • estrogen: female sex hormone
        • produced by ovaries & testes
    • Neuropeptide hormones
      • oxytocin
sexual arousal cont
Sexual Arousal (cont.)
  • Hormones in male sexual behavior
    • testosterone and desire
    • castration research
    • androgen-blocking drugs
    • hypogonadism
  • hormones in female sexual behavior
    • estrogen and ERT
    • positive correlation between testosterone & frequency of activity
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Sexual Arousal (cont.)
  • The role of hormones
    • how much testosterone is necessary?
      • two forms of testosterone
      • testosterone and libido
      • "critical mass" varies
      • excessive testosterone can harm both sexes over time
    • testosterone replacement therapy
    • oxytocin and sexual response
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Sexual Arousal (cont.)

Table 6.1 Common signs of testosterone deficiency.

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Sexual Arousal (cont.)
  • The brain
    • cerebral cortex (mental events)
    • limbic system affects feeling & behavior
      • cingulate gyrus
      • amygdala
      • hypocampus
      • hypothalamus
    • neurotransmitters
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Sexual Arousal (cont.)

Fig. 6.1 The limbic system, a region of the brain associated with emotion and motivation, is important in human sexual function. Key structures, shaded in color, include the cingulate gyrus, portions of the hypothalamus, amygdala, and the hippocampus.

sexual arousal cont8
Sexual Arousal (cont.)
  • The senses
    • touch is the dominant "sexual sense"
      • primary erogenous zones
      • secondary erogenous zones
    • vision is usually next in dominance
      • self-report: males more than females
      • equal physiological signs of arousal
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Sexual Arousal (cont.)
  • The senses
    • smell may arouse or offend
      • exposure to a human pheromone increases attractiveness ratings
    • taste plays a minor role
    • hearing plays a variable role
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Sexual Arousal (cont.)
  • Aphrodisiacs
    • food
    • alcohol and other drugs
    • yohimbine
    • role of expectations
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Sexual Arousal (cont.)
  • anaphrodisiacs
    • drugs: e.g.,opiates, tranquilizers
    • antidepressants and antipsychotics
    • birth control pills
    • nicotine constricts blood vessels, slows vasocongestive response; reduces circulating testosterone
sexual response
Sexual Response
  • Kaplan's three-stage model
    • desire: distinct, but not required
    • excitement
    • orgasm
sexual response cont
Sexual Response (cont.)

Fig. 6.2 Kaplan’s three-stage model of the sexual response cycle. This model is distinguished by its identification of desire as a prelude to sexual response. Source: Kaplan 1979.

sexual response cont14
Sexual Response (cont.)
  • Masters & Johnson's four phases
    • Physiological sources of arousal
    • Problems:
      • simplified
      • too literal interpretation of plateau stage
      • not to be used as a personal standard
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Sexual Response (cont.)
  • Two basic processes
    • Vasocongestion
    • Myotonia
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Sexual Response (cont.)
  • Masters & Johnson's four phases
    • Excitement
    • Plateau
    • Orgasm
      • Measuring female orgasm with MRI
    • Resolution
      • Refractory
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Sexual Response (cont.)

Table 6.3 At a Glance Major Physiological Changes During Each of the Four Phases of the Sexual Response Cycle

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Sexual Response (cont.)

Fig. 6.5a Major changes in external and internal male sexual anatomy during the sexual response cycle.

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Sexual Response (cont.)

Fig. 6.5b Major changes in external and internal male sexual anatomy during the sexual response cycle.

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Sexual Response (cont.)

Fig 6.5c Major changes in external and internal male sexual anatomy during the sexual response cycle.

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Sexual Response (cont.)

Fig. 6.5d Major changes in external and internal male sexual anatomy during the sexual response cycle.

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Sexual Response (cont.)

Fig. 6.5e Major changes in external and internal male sexual anatomy during the sexual response cycle.

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Sexual Response (cont.)

Fig. 6.6a Major changes in the external female genitals during the sexual response cycle.

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Sexual Response (cont.)

Fig. 6.6b Major changes in the external female genitals during the sexual response cycle.

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Sexual Response (cont.)

Fig. 6.6c Major changes in the external female genitals during the sexual response cycle.

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Sexual Response (cont.)

Fig. 6.6d Major changes in the external female genitals during the sexual response cycle.

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Sexual Response (cont.)

Fig. 6.6e Major changes in the external female genitals during the sexual response cycle.

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Sexual Response (cont.)

Fig. 6.7a Major changes in the internal female genitals during the sexual response cycle.

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Sexual Response (cont.)

Fig. 6.7b Major changes in the internal female genitals during the sexual response cycle.

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Sexual Response (cont.)

Fig. 6.7c Major changes in the internal female genitals during the sexual response cycle.

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Sexual Response (cont.)

Fig. 6.7d Major changes in the internal female genitals during the sexual response cycle.

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Sexual Response (cont.)

Fig. 6.7e Major changes in the internal female genitals during the sexual response cycle.

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Sexual Response (cont.)
  • Orgasm issues
    • Grafenberg spot
      • area on lower front wall of vagina
      • sensitive to pressure
      • sometimes results in “ejaculation”
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Sexual Response (cont.)

Fig. 6.9 Locating the Grafenberg spot. Usually two fingers are used, and it is often necessary to press deeply into the anterior wall of the vagina to reach the spot.

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Sexual Response (cont.)

Fig. 6.8 Changes in the breasts during the sexual response cycle.

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Sexual Response (cont.)
  • Aging & the sexual response cycle
    • older women
      • decreased vaginal lubrication; is slower
      • decreased flexibility of inner vagina
      • more rapid resolution
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Sexual Response (cont.)
  • Aging & the sexual response cycle
    • older men
      • lengthened time to erection
      • loss of "ejaculatory inevitability"
      • more rapid resolution & longer
      • refractory period (hours to days)
sexual response cont38
Sexual Response (cont.)
  • Some differences between the sexes
    • greater variability in female response
    • male refractory period
    • females can have multiple orgasms