BIOLOGY OF LARGE LABORATORY ANIMALS Timo Nevalainen - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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BIOLOGY OF LARGE LABORATORY ANIMALS Timo Nevalainen

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    1. Dog and Cat in Research Timo Nevalainen University of Eastern Finland

    2. Dog Breeds Beagle not too inbred no trimming Size (semichondrodystrophic) Alsatian and Labrador larger dog hip dysplasia

    4. Dog reproduction Estrus length 7-13 days Ovulation type Spontaneous Breeding 10-16 days from start of estrus Gestation 60-66 days Litter size 4-12 Litters / year 2 Weaning 7-8 weeks

    5. Reproduction Estrus every 6-8 months Estrus lasts 21-22 days Ovulation about 10th day Pseudopregnancy common

    6. Space reqs (new Appendix A)

    7. Socialization Programs Objective - tractable adults Basic commands Novel Situations Puppies through 12 weeks

    8. Administrations SC

    9. Peripheral veins Lateral saphenous vein

    10. Administrations and blood samples IV: superficial veins of front and rear legs IM: Thigh muscle Blood samples superficial veins in legs jugular vein

    11. Research Use Behavior Aging Anesthesia Pulmonary Neurology Radiology Pharmacology Trauma Shock Wound healing Nutrition Heart Dental Circulatory GI surgery Brain Skeletal Cancer Transplantation Eye Diabetes

    12. Cardiopulmonary: Distinguishing Features Intracoronary anastomoses Left CA blood supply to conduction system Incomplete mediastinum Atherosclerosis - limited lesions

    13. Gastrointestinal Tract Simple stomach and short intestine Ileocecal valve and caecum 12 hour gut transit time Fast 12 hours pre-surgery (to avoid vomiting intra-/pre-anesthesia)

    14. Pharmacologic Features Thiobarbiturates arrhythmogenic Ketamine convulsive Xylazine hypotensive Morphine emetic

    15. Breed Sensitivities Sight hounds thiobarbiturates e.g., Greyhounds, Borzoi, Salukis Collies - ivermectin

    16. Diseases of Concern Rabies Canine distemper Infectious hepatitis virus Infectious tracheobronchitis Parainfluenza Bordetella

    17. Yearly - all dogs Breeding females during anestrus Pup vaccination 6-16 weeks Vaccination Recommendations

    18. Endotracheal Intubation To intubate successfully, the laryngeal structures must be clearly seen.

    19. Endotracheal Intubation Use the arytenoid cartilages, vocal folds and laryngeal inlet as your landmarks.

    20. Endotracheal Intubation Never insert a tube blindly. It will end up in the esophagus, not the trachea.

    21. Endotracheal Intubation To intubate properly, There is no substitute for seeing the tube as it enters the larynx.

    22. Inflation of the Balloon

    23. Tying the Tube Tie the tube in place - To either jaw. Behind the occiput. Securing the tube - Preserves the airway. Protects the trachea from trauma if the tube / balloon were dislodged.

    24. Anesthesia Recovery Prepare to extubate - Step 1: Untie the tube.

    27. Euthanasia Injectable agents - anesthetics Inhalants - CO2, CO

    28. Health monitoring FELASA guidelines Vaccination: distemper infectious hepatitis parvo rabies ?

    29. Parasites Toxocara canis (intrauterine infection)

    31. Working with the Laboratory Dog - Training for the Enhancement of Animal Welfare in Research http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/TrainingVideos.htm#dog

    32. Cat: SPF vs. Conventional prone to respiratory infections Cats suffering from respiratory infections are poor subjects for research There are SPF (specific pathogen free) breeders of cats

    33. Cat: Reproduction Data Estrus cycle duration 14 days Estrus duration 3-6 days Type of ovulation induced Mating methods 1M /1-15F Gestation 64-66 days Litter size 3-6 Litters / year 2 Weaning age 4-5 weeks

    34. Socialization to Humans Socialize kittens between 4 and 14 weeks of age. If socialization to humans is neglected, they will develop a natural fear of humans. Cats not properly socialized can be dangerous!! It only takes a few minutes a day.

    35. Soft beds Perches Exercise areas Toys Cats like comfort.

    36. Housing

    37. Enrichment

    38. Cat Handling Cautions Bite wounds Scratches Temperament Work safely Use proper restraint Avoid stressing the cat

    39. Cat: Common Procedures Handling may be difficult chemical sedation immobilization devices

    40. Helpful Hints on Restraint Get the cat to cooperate: Reassure Stroke and pet Verbal praise Quiet manner Respectful attitude

    41. Helpful Hints on Restraint Never over-restrain a cat! Too much force makes the cat struggle. If you engage in a battle of wills, you will lose. If a cat gets over excited, stop and return the cat to his cage. Let him relax a while. Use the minimum restraint necessary to do the procedure. Persuade (not force) the cat to cooperate.

    42. Restraint

    43. Restraint Lateral recumbency

    44. Restraint One-handed hold

    45. Restraint Scruff Reflex Calming effect. May help to regain control in a challenging situation.

    46. Restraint The Kitty Burrito Flatten cat on a towel. Wrap securely. Enclose front legs. Allows rear access.

    47. Elizabethan Collars Can protect against bites. Likely to stress a cat.use only if necessary. Eliz. collar and towel combination...

    48. Cat: Common Procedures Intravenous injection requires good handling veins accessible (antebrachial and femoral) are small and fragile, use butterfly (23G) needles Blood samples from ear or jugular vein

    49. Cat: Research Use Aging Auditory Digestive Behavior Cancer Endocrine Circulatory Genetics Immune Hemopoietic Infectious diseases CNS Musculoskeletal Eye Skin Respiratory Teratology Toxicology

    50. Cat Bites Dangerous Infection In a full-force bite, canine teeth insert dangerous pathogens into the tissues. Because these wounds often develop serious infections, medical attention should be sought immediately after a cat bite.

    51. Toxoplasmosis Fetuses (pregnant women) Wear gloves, wash hands Cat Scratch Fever Bartonella henselae Control fleas transmission among cats Transmitted to humans via bites, scratches, licking Other Hazards Unique to Cats

    52. Cat: Health surveillance FELASA health monitoring guidelines Source of cats Vaccination panleukopenia rabies Toxoplasmosis Deworming

    53. The Feline Diet Compared to dogs, cats have a higher requirement for Protein Fat Taurine Arachidonic acid Vitamin A Niacin Pyridoxin

    54. Toxicity Morphine causes dose dependent CNS stimulation and mania. Cats metabolize aspirin and other drugs poorly. Acetominophen is toxic.

    55. Feline Infectious Peritonitis