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Anaerobic Respiration. During the last stage of cell respiration, electrons from glucose are passed down the electron passport chain to the final electron acceptor, oxygen. Chemiosmosis couples the electron transport chain to ATP synthesis:. Aerobic Respiration.

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slide2

During the last stage of cell respiration, electrons from glucose are passed down the electron passport chain to the final electron acceptor, oxygen

aerobic respiration
Aerobic Respiration
  • When oxygen is the final electron acceptor, the process is called aerobic respiration
  • Aerobic = occurring in the presence of oxygen
anaerobic respiration1
Anaerobic Respiration
  • Some prokaryotes are able to carry out anaerobic respiration, respiration in which an inorganic molecule other than oxygen (O2) is the final electron acceptor.
  • For example, some bacteria, called nitrate reducers, can transfer electrons to nitrate (NO3-) reducing it to nitrite (NO2-).
  • Less efficient: usually 30-34 ATPs per glucose molecule.
what happens if there is no available electron acceptor
What happens if there is no available electron acceptor?

Glucose

2 ADP

2 NAD+

glycolysis

2 ATP

2 NADH

2 pyruvate

Aerobic respiration: The NADH then passes its high energy e- to the

electron transport chain (becoming NAD+ again) and eventually to O2

Anaerobic respiration: Without O2, NADH has nowhere to donate its e- to, NAD+ cannot be regenerated, and glycolysis stops

anaerobic fermentation
Anaerobic fermentation
  • Fermentation: An alternative set of reactions that can follow glycolysis in the absence of oxygen as a final electron acceptor.
  • Extremely inefficient: no Kreb’s cycle, no ETC. Glycolysis produces a net of 2 ATP’s per glucose molecule
slide8

FERMENTATION PATHWAYS ALLOWS CELLS TO REGENERATE NAD+ FOR GLYCOLSIS

Fermentation

by-product

Intermediate accepts

electrons from NADH

2 NAD+

2 NADH

2

Pyruvate

Glucose

2 ATP

2 ADP

slide9

LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION OCCURS IN HUMANS

Pyruvate accepts

electrons from NADH

2 Lactate

2 NAD+

2 NADH

Glucose

2 ATP

2 ADP

2 Pyruvate

during heavy exercise atp production will switch from aerobic respiration to anerobic respiration
During heavy exercise, ATP production will switch from aerobic respiration to anerobic respiration
slide11

ALCOHOL FERMENTATION OCCURS IN YEAST

2 CO2

2 Acetylaldehyde

2 Ethanol

2 NAD+

2 NADH

Glucose

2 ATP

2 ADP

2 Pyruvate