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Does “e” Stand for Everything?

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  1. Does “e” Stand for Everything? Maggie McPherson University of Sheffield Department Information Studies

  2. Outline of Session • Introduction • eLearning • Discussion of Issues • Workshop Debate • Focus group activity • Summary & Conclusions

  3. Introduction Background • Personalexperience of e-Learning • Involved in Distance Ed for over ten years • Currently doing ongoing research in e-Learning • Collaborative work with Dr Miguel Nunes

  4. Issues to be addressed • Define Critical Success Factors in Context • Organisational and Management Issues • Technological Issues • Curriculum Development Issues • Educational Systems Design Issues • eLearning Delivery Issues

  5. Definitions of CSFs: • “Critical success factors are those handful of things that within someone’s job must go right for the organisation to flourish. They are factors that the manager wishes to keep a constant eye upon.” Robson (1997 p.155) • “Critical success factors are those components of strategy where the organisation must excel to out perform competition.” Johnson and Scholes (1999 p.192)

  6. Critical Success Factor (CSFs) Analysis • An established management research method, first proposed by Rockhart in 1979, as a means ofidentifying the factors that are requiredfor an organisation to thrive. • In this session, however, this means looking at CSFs for eLearning identified by participants in previous workshops and attempting to reach a concensus on what the key factors might be

  7. Organisational Setting • Organisational Strategists and Policy Makers • Senior Managers and Administrators • Dept. Heads and Administrators Technological Infrastructure • Computing Services (MLEs, VLEs, CMC) • Technicians to Support Teaching and Learning Curriculum Development • Academic Staff • Educational Specialists • Subject Matter Experts Educational Systems Design Delivery • Academic Staff • ICT Specialists • Educational Specialists • Academic Staff • Researchers • Tutors • Students HEIs: E-Learning Stakeholders McPherson & Nunes, 2004 High Institutional Involvement Low Low High Academic Involvement

  8. Organisational Issues

  9. eLearning Organisational Challenges Strategic Issues at Cultural/Managerial Level: • Decisions for positioning of university • Need for explicit eLearning strategies • Lack of expertise in creating strategies • Human resources - opportunities and constraints • National funding - competition vs. co-operation • HE competition worldwide (e.g. US, Australia) • Corporate eLearning providers emerging

  10. eLearning Organisational Challenges Implementation Issues: • Staff motivational issues need to be addressed • Customs and practice - barriers to change • HE Reward systems not aligned with teaching • Overcome academics “wariness” of new methods • Academic contracts may impede innovation • HE systems slow to change • Senior staff may lack “change management skills”

  11. Technologies for Learning and Teaching

  12. eLearning Technologies • Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) • Managed Learning Environments (MLEs) • Computer Medicated Communication (CMC) • Specific Teaching andLearningTools

  13. Learning Environments • Learning Environments are developed to: • address an identified learning need • resolve a particular educational problem • Learning Environments should be : • linked to the solution of the problem

  14. Learning Environments • Learning Environments are essentially constructs that promote learning by supporting interactions between: • the tutor • the learner and her/his peers • the subject matter, and the • learning materials • These interactions may, or may not, be computer mediated

  15. Virtual Learning Environments VLEs should be conceived, designed and implemented using an appropriate Educational System Design (ESD) framework that ranges from curriculum design to course delivery

  16. Considerations for Development of VLEs, MLEs, and e-Learning Tools • In designing and developing these environments you need to consider: • Information, Communication Technology (ICT) vs. Face-to-Face (F2F) components • Technical issues, e.g. security • Educational and subject matter specialisms • Staff and support issues, e.g. IP • Strategic needs of the Institution

  17. Curriculum Development

  18. Curriculum Development • A curriculum can be defined as a“planned educational experience” • It is likely to involve: • Academic Staff • Educational Specialists • Subject Matter Experts • Designing a curriculum involves: • doing a needs analysis • deciding on initial team • analysing all stakeholders • deciding on learning objectives • allocating resources

  19. Curriculum Design Processes • Designing an e-Learning curriculum involves: • doing a needs analysis • assessing suitability for eLearning • deciding on initial team • analysing all stakeholders • deciding on learning objectives • allocating resources

  20. Select a Suitable Pedagogical Model, e.g. • Explicit Learning Materials • Course Materials • Case-Studies • Links to relevant Web Sites • Learning Activities • Individual Learning Activities • Group Learning Activities • Assessed Activities Self Reflection IndividualConstruction of Knowledge Virtual Learning Environment Social negotiation. Collaboration, Co-operation Tutoring, Scaffolding and Pastoral Support Peer Support, Socialisation The Tutor The Learner Nunes & McPherson (2002) The Peers

  21. Tasks Environment for Course Philosophy Learning Models Pedagogical Strategy LearningActivities Pedagogical Tactics Learning Outcomes eLearning Curriculum Development Pedagogical Model Curriculum Design McPherson & Nunes, 2004

  22. Educational Systems Design

  23. Educational Systems Design • ESD mustfocus on: …… identifying and implementing a learning environment combining pedagogical, subject matter and tutoring issues (Moore, 1991; Croft, 1993, Nunes, 1999)

  24. Implementing ESD • Recognize that complex e-learning environments means more than: • designing a few screens • specifying their sequence • Key to development of successful e-learning environments is: • recognising both technical and pedagogical components of educational design • integrating them in a coherent framework

  25. Implications for ESD • The process of design and development is: • one of co-construction and negotiation, • rather than interpretation of student’s needs • Rapid prototypingis thought to be an ideal approach, which: • facilitates the integration of different agents in educational software development, i.e. subject matter experts, designers & students

  26. Educational Systems Design • An ESDFramework: • Construction not Interpretation • Framework not a Methodology • Based on a Rapid Prototyping Approach • Recursive Design and Development • Required for Both Individual and Team-based Projects Curriculum Design Design and Specificationof the Learning Environment Development of different components Other Components Reference materials CMC facilities Explicit Web Materials Student and Tutor Feedback Evaluation Course Delivery General ESD framework adapted from Croft (1993) and Nunes (1999)

  27. Delivery of eLearning

  28. The eLearning Delivery Design • Must consider: • target audience • studentbackground • delivery mode • Often needs a team approach: • Academic staff • Researchers • Tutors • Support staff

  29. Module One Module Two Module Five Online Tutor Training Induction Module  Tutor Delivery and Support Module One Module Two Module Five Induction Module  Alumni Involvement Virtual Social Space Delivering an eLearning Course • Implementation model needs careful thought

  30. eLearning Delivery Issues • Particular consideration to be given to: • Tutoring and counselling processes • Prepared self-study learning materials • Readily available learning resources • Student group activities

  31. Time for some interaction! • This workshop forms part of on-going research at the University of Sheffield • At this point, you are invited to join this co-operative inquiry and to carry out a eLearning Critical Success Factor (CSF) Analysis

  32. Concluding Reflections • ICT offers great potential for HE, however … challenges must be faced if eLearning implementation is to be effective: • Policy-makers must decide and support strategy • Managers, technologists and educationalists must work together • Academics need training to implement changes to best advantage • Research to incorporate all stakeholder views

  33. Organisational Context Tasks Course Environment Philosophy Learning Models Learning Activities Pedagogical Strategy Pedagogical Tactics Learning Outcomes Evaluation McPherson & Nunes, 2004 Educational Management Action Research

  34. Closing Discussion Any Comments or Questions? Contact Details: “Maggie McPherson” <> Tel: +44 114 222 2696

  35. Option 1: Do nothing about it! (courtesy of Dr Amer Al Rawas,Sultan Qaboos University, Oman)

  36. Option 2: Rush to it ! (courtesy of Dr Amer Al Rawas,Sultan Qaboos University, Oman)

  37. Option 3: Take it seriously! (courtesy of Dr Amer Al Rawas,Sultan Qaboos University, Oman)