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Biofuels Sustainability Qs: towards solutions Njeri Wamukonya. Presented at the High-level Biofuels Seminar in Africa, Addis Ababa, 30July-1 August 2007 . A fast growing market…. Worldwide investment in bioenergy in 2005 were US$2.66 billion, in 2006 it was US$ 21 billion.

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biofuels sustainability qs towards solutions njeri wamukonya

Biofuels Sustainability Qs: towards solutionsNjeri Wamukonya

Presented at the High-level Biofuels Seminar in Africa, Addis Ababa, 30July-1 August 2007

a fast growing market
A fast growing market…

Worldwide investment in bioenergy in 2005 were US$2.66 billion, in 2006 it was US$ 21 billion.

Governments in developed and developing countries are putting into place bioenergy targets.

Main drivers for bioenergy uptake are energy security, climate change and development concerns.

food security
Food security

4 cumulative dimensions:

Availability, Access, Stability, Utilization

issues realities
  • The biofuel industry will prevail due to the forces/incentives and drivers in place
  • Drivers are multifaceted (CC underlying- but it is MITIGATION –(who has the mitigative obligations?))– and that’s all its about from a CC perspective
  • What are the risks posed by this driver: is there danger of solving one env problem while creating other env problems
issues realities1
  • Stakeholders interests can be conflicting (large companies vs women subsistence farmers)
  • What experiences can and should be transferred?
  • What pitfalls should be avoided based on past cash-crop experiences?
  • How can potential threats be circumvented?
challenges two fold
Challenges (two-fold)
  • 1: it is important that environmental and social criteria for production of the biomass are met
  • 2: this criteria should be flexible to achieve maximum yield for biofuels production (but not compromising)
  • Hence UNEP and partners are setting up a process for establishing stds for biofuels (starting with vehicles) ; policy guidelines also needed ; enforcement mechanisms/self regulatory
  • Agreement on a criteria or principles is necessary
  • Target stakeholders: producer andconsumer
  • Tool : certification
  • assures customers that the product they purchase is produced in a sustainable manner
  • Certification steps:
    • Application of Stds - locally relevant but also comply with international stds/good practice
    • Inspection (audit) –assessment to ensure stds are met
    • Evaluation and results of audit –tracing product to source
    • Issuance of the certificate if compliance is met - after receiving accreditation then products can be labeled with ‘seal of approval’
team activities towards stds goal
Team activities towards stds goal
  • Gather info on existing certification systems that could be adapted `for establishing sustainable biomass production system
  • 12 different labels were screened in Forestry, Agric, bioenergy for heat and electricity production and trade sector – examining indicators that cover social, economic, ecological and general criteria
general findings
General findings
  • Agric: - no certification system for biomass production specifically for bioenergy
  • Existing systems emphasis on:
    • Organic farming – prohibits use of agrochemicals eg mineral nitrogen fertilisers and pesticides
    • Integrated agric – farming in an economically viable way while respecting ecological demands
general findings1
General findings
  • Forestry: certification ensures management and proper logging practices are adhered to
  • Considers social, economic and env benefits for both producer and consumer of products
  • There are 20 forest certification organizations and stds in operation
  • 2 major forest certification umbrellas –
    • Programme for endorsement of forest certification schemes
    • Forest stewardship council
general findings2
General findings
  • Bioenergy for heat and electricity production : deals with criteria for sustainable energy from biomass sources
  • 2 systems –
    • European Green Electricity Network (EUGENE)
    • Green gold certificate
  • 3rd relevant system focusing on principles and criteria for palm oil production – Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO)
general findings3
General findings
  • Trade : can benefit the economy But can also create inequities
    • Eg: 49 LDCs rep---10% of world’s pop--- contribute only 0.4% of global exports
  • Incoperating trade criteria provides better trading opportunities and ensures producers especially poor and disadvantaged producers benefit from biofuels (not repeat the LDC scenario)
can certification work
Can certification work?
  • Common agenda / shared goals
  • Commitment to goal and partners
  • Overall : accountability/enforcement mechanisms/commitment and political will
  • Flexible and lean/simple inst structure
      • examples
roundtable on sustainable palm oil rspo
Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO)
  • Ensures palm oil production is done in a sustainable manner
  • Started in 2001 WWF got consultant to explore possibilities
  • 2003 : WWF organised consultative meeting -200 participants from 16 countries
  • 2004 RSPO formally established under the Swiss Civil Code
  • Association seats in Zurich but sec currently based in Kuala Lumpur
roundtable on sustainable palm oil rspo1
Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO)
  • Funding
    • ordinary membership fees at Euro2000/yr
    • Affiliate membership fees at Euro 250/yr
  • Structure
    • Managed by EB comprised of 16 members designated by general assembly for 2 years
    • Members : oil palm growers, palm oil producers, palm oil processors and traders, consumer goods manufacturers, env ngos, retailers, banks/investors, social/dev ngos
    • decisions made on consensus basis
roundtable on sustainable palm oil rspo2
Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO)
  • STDs and the respective principles
  • Social Dev:
    • Responsible consideration for employees, individuals and communities affected by growers or mills
  • Econ Dev:
    • Commitment to long term econ and financial viability
  • Env Dev:
    • Env responsibility and conservation of natural resources and biodiversity
roundtable on sustainable palm oil rspo3
Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO)

4. Generic Stds

  • Env responsibility and conservation of natural resources and biodiversity
  • Compliance with applicable laws and regulations
  • Responsible dev of new plantings
  • Commitment to continuous improvement in key areas of activity

Accreditation : independent

firetrade labelling organisation
Firetrade Labelling Organisation
  • For such products as coffee and cocoa
  • Purpose: improve position of poor and disadvantaged producers in the developing world
  • Labeling initiatives and members encourage industry and consumers to support fairer trade and purchase products
firetrade labelling organisation1
Firetrade Labelling Organisation
  • Funding:
    • license fees from Labeling Initiatives
    • Premiums from consumers
    • Certification paid by producers and traders
  • Structure : Board of Directors (11 members for 3 years) . A Director runs the organization
  • 3 sets of stds:
    • for small farmers
    • Laborers on plantations and factories
    • Traders
firetrade labelling organisation2
Firetrade Labelling Organisation
  • Label criteria:
    • Minimum and progress requirements for Stds
    • Producers business unit –suppo
  • Certification areas: 560 orgs in 75 countries in africa, asia, and LA (their effectiveness in africa is questionable given 0.4% share of trade among LDCs!!)
does africa need such an approach stds criteria
Does Africa need such an approach - stds/criteria?
  • Status and stages of dev in African countries differ
  • Level and extent of involvement will differ
  • External stakeholders diversified – approaches individual or community or country
  • No level playing field between ‘external’ players and local (includes gov) eg external players are financially and information advantaged
  • Past experiences with cash crops call for caution

A policy makers choice!!

basis for development
Basis for development
  • Social Dev : not compromise/compete with food, (water, land, labor etc)
Does the country meet food demand locally
  • What is the share towards food security does local production meet?
  • Is the country under food security threat?
guiding approaches
Guiding approaches ??
  • Areas under food production should not shift to biofuels
  • Areas with high-medium production potential should not be used for biofuels
  • Marginal land: used only if not under threat to severe unrecoverable degradation
  • Clear forest land/wetlands for biofuels
  • What type of national support to provide for biofuels? How does this compete with other food security needs?