slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
American Aristocracy PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
American Aristocracy

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 49

American Aristocracy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 135 Views
  • Uploaded on

American Aristocracy. “Some of their fellow-citizens acquired a power over the rest which might truly have been called aristocratic, if it had been capable of invariable transmission from father to son.” — Alexis de Toqueville (1840, 4). z INTRO. — HISTORY — CASES — ISSUES

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'American Aristocracy' - osbourne


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
american aristocracy
American Aristocracy
  • “Some of their fellow-citizens acquired a power over the rest which might truly have been called aristocratic, if it had been capable of invariable transmission from father to son.”

—Alexis de Toqueville (1840, 4)

z INTRO.

— HISTORY

— CASES

— ISSUES

— SOLUTIONS

slide4
PUBLIC OFFICIALS

Jan Brewer

Governor of Arizona

Jeff Sessions

U.S. Senator

Hilary Clinton

U.S. Secretary of State

George Bush, Sr.

41st President

public officials
Public Officials
  • Gained interest because their occupation affects the public at the national, state, and/or local level
  • Recognized for knowledge, leadership skills, and charisma

z INTRO.

— HISTORY

— CASES

— ISSUES

— SOLUTIONS

public figures
PUBLIC FIGURES

Ellen Pompeo

T.V. Actress

Kobe Bryant

Professional Basketball Player

Beyonce Knowles

Singer

Brad Pitt

Actor

public figures1
Public Figures
  • Gained interest because their occupation interests the public
  • “The glamorous impersonates the ordinary.” — Laura Mulvey (1975, 205)

z INTRO.

— HISTORY

— CASES

— ISSUES

— SOLUTIONS

what is defamation
What is Defamation?
  • False & derogatory statements that injure reputation
  • Slander & libel
  • Tortus = twisted

z INTRO.

— HISTORY

— CASES

— ISSUES

— SOLUTIONS

the twists
The Twists
  • The First Amendment vs. English common law
  • Private Individuals v. Public Figures/Officials

z INTRO.

— HISTORY

— CASES

— ISSUES

— SOLUTIONS

english common law tradition
English Common Law Tradition
  • 1275 statute outlawing slander between King & people
  • Penance vs. temporal grievance
  • Court of Star Chamber & birth of libel law
  • Importance of reputation in English society

— INTRO.

zHISTORY

— CASES

— ISSUES

— SOLUTIONS

defamation in the united states
Defamation in the United States
  • “Congress shall make no law. . . abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press.”
  • The Sedition Act of 1798
  • Common law remained intact

— INTRO.

z HISTORY

— CASES

— ISSUES

— SOLUTIONS

officials become public
Officials Become Public
  • Prior to 1896—no press space in White House
  • Appearance of mass-circulation press
  • Theodore Roosevelt holds press conferences
  • After Watergate—shift in public interest

— INTRO.

z HISTORY

— CASES

— ISSUES

— SOLUTIONS

pres kennedy as a public official
Pres. Kennedy as a Public Official
  • The masquerade of Camelot in the 1960’s
  • Post-Watergate—reality of Kennedy’s private life

— INTRO.

z HISTORY

— CASES

— ISSUES

— SOLUTIONS

emergence of public figures
Emergence of Public Figures
  • The Hollywood Studio Machine
  • The growth of tabloids

— INTRO.

z HISTORY

— CASES

— ISSUES

— SOLUTIONS

new york times v sullivan 1964
New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)
  • The facts of the case
  • Common law v.s. the First Amendment
  • Public officials & actual malice
  • A new American standard

— INTRO.

—HISTORY

z CASES

— ISSUES

— SOLUTIONS

time inc v hill 1967
Time, Inc. v. Hill (1967)
  • Facts of the case
  • Not a libel suit
  • A matter of public interest
  • Hill as a public figure

— INTRO.

— HISTORY

zCASES

— ISSUES

— SOLUTIONS

curtis publishing co v butts 1967
Curtis Publishing Co. v. Butts (1967)
  • Facts of the case
  • Butts as a public figure
  • Application of actual malice standard

— INTRO.

— HISTORY

zCASES

— ISSUES

— SOLUTIONS

gertz v robert welch inc 1974
Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc. (1974)
  • Facts of the case
  • Gertz as a private citizen
  • Actual malice standard inapplicable
  • Treatment decided by the states

— INTRO.

— HISTORY

zCASES

— ISSUES

— SOLUTIONS

philadelphia newspapers inc v hepps 1987
Philadelphia Newspapers, Inc. v. Hepps (1987)
  • Facts of the case
  • Common law and the burden of proof
  • The most constitutionally protected entity
  • Private citizens bear the burden

— INTRO.

— HISTORY

zCASES

— ISSUES

— SOLUTIONS

american defamation law the federal system
American Defamation Law & the Federal System
  • Milkovich v. Lorain Journal Co. (1990) — a framework
  • Burnett v. National Enquirer (1981) — kinds of malice
  • The categories of public officials and public figures
  • Differences in degree of fault

— INTRO.

— HISTORY

— CASES

zISSUES

— SOLUTIONS

the internet
The Internet
  • Internet intermediaries
  • Communications Decency Act (1996)
  • Widespread anonymity; 55% of bloggers use pseudonyms.
  • An advanced version of a classical forum

— INTRO.

— HISTORY

— CASES

z ISSUES

— SOLUTIONS

remedies damages
Remedies & Damages
  • Monetary awards
  • Declaratory relief
  • Self-Help
  • Right-of-Response statutes
  • Injunctive relief
  • Retraction

— INTRO.

— HISTORY

— CASES

z ISSUES

— SOLUTIONS

five key issues
Five Key Issues
  • First Amendment vs. common law
  • Public vs. private citizens
  • Differences between states
  • Defamation and the internet
  • Insufficiency of remedies

— INTRO.

— HISTORY

— CASES

z ISSUES

— SOLUTIONS

proposed solution to issue one the first amendment vs common law
Proposed Solution to Issue One:The First Amendment vs. Common Law
  • Support New York Times interpretation of First Amendment & common law
  • No actual malice requirement in declaratory relief claims

— INTRO.

— HISTORY

— CASES

—ISSUES

zSOLUTIONS

proposed solution to issue two public vs private distinction
Proposed Solution to Issue Two:Public vs. Private Distinction
  • Categories needed
  • Recommend the courts redefine the major categories based on today’s social constructs

— INTRO.

— HISTORY

— CASES

—ISSUES

zSOLUTIONS

thoughts on issue three differences between states
Thoughts on Issue Three:Differences Between States
  • Importance of enabling each state to craft its own defamation law
  • The national framework holds the law in place

— INTRO.

— HISTORY

— CASES

—ISSUES

zSOLUTIONS

proposed solution to issue four defamation the internet
Proposed Solution to Issue Four:Defamation & the Internet
  • Support Solove’s proposal for exhausting informal mechanisms when the defendant is not a repeat offender or part of a broadcast or print-media publication

— INTRO.

— HISTORY

— CASES

—ISSUES

zSOLUTIONS

proposed solutions to issue five insufficiency of remedies
Proposed Solutions to Issue Five:Insufficiency of Remedies
  • Support a loser-pay-all system
  • Believe declaratory relief issued in the same publication the defamatory statement was released as the most sufficient remedy

— INTRO.

— HISTORY

— CASES

—ISSUES

zSOLUTIONS

final thoughts
Final Thoughts
  • The twist in defamation law cannot be fully straightened because of its very nature, but perhaps, it can be slightly untwisted with new revision of the old law.

— INTRO.

— HISTORY

— CASES

—ISSUES

zSOLUTIONS

major sources
Major Sources
  • Collins, Matthew. 2005. The Law of Defamation and the Internet. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, INC.
  • Curtis Publishing Company v Butts, 388 US 130 (1967) <http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cgibin/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=388&invol=13> (accessed 20 September 2009).
  • Gertz v. Robert Welch, INC., 418 US 323 (1974) < http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cgi- bin/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=418&invol=323> (accessed 19 September 2009).
  • Kupferman, Theodore R. ed. 1990. Defamation: Libel and Slander: Readings from Communication and the Law, I. Westport, Connecticut: Meckler Corporation.
  • Milo, Dario. 2008. Defamation and Freedom of Speech. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.
  • Mulvey, Laura. 1975. “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema.” In The Routledge Critical and Cultural Theory Reader. 2008. Eds. Neil Badmington and Julia Thomas. New York, N.Y.: Routledge. 202-212.
  • New York Times Company v. Sullivan, 376 US 254 (1964) <http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=376&invol=254> (accessed 20 September 2009).
  • Philadelphia Newspapers, INC v. Hepps, 475 US 767 (1987) <http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?navby=search&court=US&case =/us/475/767.html> (accessed 19 September 2009).
major sources1
Major Sources
  • Schwartz, Victor E., Kathryn Kelly, and David F. Partlett. 2005. Prosser, Wade, and Schwartz’s Torts: Eleventh Edition. New York, N.Y.: Foundation Press.
  • Siegel, Paul. 2008. Communication Law in America: Second Edition. New York, N.Y.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, INC.
  • Smolla, Rodney A. 1986. Suing the Press. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, INC.
  • Solove, Daniel J. 2007. The Future of Reputation. New Haven, C.T.: Yale University Press.
  • Time, Inc. v. Hill, 385 U.S. 374 (1967) <http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cgibin/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=385&invol=374> (accessed 19 September 2009).
  • Tocqueville, Alexis de. 1840. “Equality of Condition.” In Classic Readings in American Politics: 3rd Edition. 1999. Eds. Pietro S. Nivola and David H. Rosenbloom. New York, N.Y.: Worth Publishers INC. 3-8.
base image sources
Base Image Sources
  • http://www.webring.com/hub?ring=americaskennedys
  • http://images.chron.com/blogs/fanblogastros/archives/american-flag.jpg
  • http://www.rogersrants.com/uploads/RonaldReagan.jpg
  • http://s3.images.com/huge.1.8461.JPG
  • http://www.historyplace.com/kennedy/jfkpix/63/porchthp.jpg
  • http://www.elvispresleymuseum.com/images/page_3_68_ep_leather_with_audience.jpg
  • http://img2.timeinc.net/people/i/2007/specials/oscars07/show/beauty/beyonce_knowles.jpg
  • http://filmonic.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/08/brad_pitt.jpg
  • http://www.venuereservations.co.uk/userfiles/venues/places/12/main/main.jpg
  • http://www.nndb.com/people/362/000022296/george-bush-sr.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b9/Jeff_Sessions_official_portrait.jpg
  • http://www.slamonline.com/online/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/kobe_bryant_main.jpg
  • http://img2.timeinc.net/people/i/2008/database/ellenpompeo/ellenpompeo300.jpg
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Governor_Jan_Brewer.jpg
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hillary_Clinton_official_Secretary_of_State_portrait_crop.jpg
  • http://www.corbisimages.com/images/HU058230.jpg?size=67&uid=9EA7A5EA-298E-44F3-B3BB-320BEA9D61D0
  • http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_5ir3oXdw4zg/SYRtHpTll7I/AAAAAAAACww/uGhW_DZmJxA/s400/20081117075104.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8d/JFK_and_Marilyn_Monroe_1962.jpg
  • http://www.rotoinfo.com/admin/images/adrian-peterson2(1).jpg
  • http://www.javno.com/slike/slike_3/r1/g2008/m10/y183731481725298.jpg
  • http://www.australia.to/images/stories/6News/US%20Supreme%20Court.jpg
  • http://lib.utexas.edu/maps/united_states/usa_blank.jpg
  • http://www.thehawkgroup.com/images/computer.jpg
  • http://www.freefoto.com/images/04/34/04_34_12---Computer-Keyboard_web.jpg
  • http://lh3.ggpht.com/_BtX3mbqRLh8/SDMVJuv1vMI/AAAAAAAABro/iC6sUdwTmtQ/DSC03004.JPG
  • http://www.cs.uni.edu/~wallingf/blog-images/misc/notebook.jpg
  • http://www.rogerwendell.com/images/solutions/solutions.jpg
  • http://lehrman.isi.org/media/images/cache/Alexis_de_Tocqueville.jpg/638px-Alexis_de_Tocqueville.jpg
  • http://www.hunton.com/files/tbl_s33PracticeGroups%5CImage5695%5C823%5Cdefamation.jpg
  • http://www.canadianlawsite.ca/images/slander.jpg
  • http://blog.communiquepr.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/newspaper.jpg
  • http://heavenawaits.files.wordpress.com/2008/12/hourglass.jpg