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The Global Economy. Global Economy. Common to buy clothing anywhere in US which has a tag labeled, ‘Made in Malaysia, China or Sri Lanka’ Simple observation reminds us that our consumption of goods has a strong international character

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The Global Economy

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    1. The Global Economy

    2. Global Economy • Common to buy clothing anywhere in US which has a tag labeled, ‘Made in Malaysia, China or Sri Lanka’ • Simple observation reminds us that our consumption of goods has a strong international character • Increasingly true to speak not only of national economies but a larger, highly inter-connected and interdependent- GLOBAL ECONOMY • Before discussing basic mechanisms of industrialization and economic change within Third World, important to look at the broader global industrial environment within which these nations are forced to compete

    3. Setting the Stage: Origins of the Global Economy • Since 1970s world economy hit by turbulent forces • Unemployment in western countries • Traditional industries (iron and steel) have declined • LDCs bearing huge financial debts which threaten drive for development • Trading tensions have emerged between industrial countries and the newly industrializing countries

    4. Causes of These Conditions? • Some argue that continuing OPEC escalation of oil prices through limited production is root cause • Had some effect but too simple an answer • More profound changes in world economic structure were underway before this • Increasingly growing consensus that world economy has become more volatile, complex and tightly connected • Countries affected by what is happening abroad and at larger geographical scale

    5. Internationalization of Trade and Labor • As with Japanese autos, American computers and Taiwanese calculators there is an emergence of a “new international division of labor” • Basically a change in geographical pattern of specialization at the global scale-constantly changing and very dynamic • Example: movement of textile and shoe production from Indonesia to China

    6. International Division of Labor • Division of labor has taken on spatial dimensions- some areas come to specialize in certain types of economic activity • At broad scale : industrialized countries --- manufactured goods while non-industrialized countries --- raw materials • However this simple pattern no longer exists • Now much more complex structure involving fragmentation of many processes and their geographical relocation on a global scale

    7. Forces Surrounding Global System of Production • These five factors are affecting production patterns: • 1. Trans-national or multi-national corporations (MNCs)-firms that operate in many nations • Increasingly these firms have local production points and suppliers that operate across national boundaries providing and securing labor, capital and other resources from a variety of places and which have become very powerful and important influences in the global economy

    8. Sequential Model of TNC Development • Stage I- Serve domestic market only • Stage II- Export to overseas markets through independent channels (sales agents) • Stage III- Establish sales outlets in overseas markets by acquiring local firm and/or setting up new facility • Stage IV- Establish production facility overseas by acquiring local firm and/or setting up new facility

    9. Geographical Growth of a Multinational Corporation 1 2 Tariff Nation Center Basic Enterprise Penetration of a National Market Other Nation Factory Distribution center Representative Multinational Corporation Penetration of Foreign Markets 3 4

    10. Forces Surrounding Global System of Production • 2. National governments- through their industrial, trade and foreign policies especially liberalization policies • Liberalization refers to the way in which policies facilitate transactions (trade and sales) of a variety of products and services • Deregulation refers to the easing of taxation, entry and pricing of products or services dictated by government policy • Privatization refers to the ownership of former public sector operations and firms by private corporations and enterprises

    11. Forces Surrounding Global System of Production • 3. Enabling Technologies- transport, communications, production and organizational improvements • Explosion of enhanced transport and communication services such as air cargo, integrators offering definite time delivery (FedEx and UPS), electronic mail and electronic data interchange (EDI) • Advanced inventory management such (just-in-time (JIT)) and new systems of distribution such as third party logistics (3PL)

    12. Just-in-Time and its Logistic Delivery units for finished goods Delivery units for parts Production Unit Old warehouse before Just-in-Time Warehouse FACTORY Assembly Line Moving storage units Assembly and warehousing place Moving storage units

    13. % of Products Shipped for “Just-in-Time” Manufacturing

    14. Forces Surrounding Global System of Production • 4. Shifts in Market Conditions and Demand • Economic cycles affect markets and production, e.g. the Asian financial crisis • Dramatic shifts in demand affect over time influence type of good being produced and production schedules • Application of new technology can mean product obsolescence • These changes can be described in part through product life cycle

    15. Product Life Cycle • Essence of PLC is that growth in sales of product follows systematic path, from initial introduction to market through development, growth, maturity, decline and obsolescence

    16. Product Life Cycle Competition Monopoly Competitors Innovating firm Sales Decline of production Idea Promotion First competitors Mass production Research and development Growth Decline Maturity Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4

    17. Cellular Phones of Nokia • Evolution of basic Cellular phones are an example of a product which is especially applicable to the notion of the product life cycle • phone to color enhancement to camera and email device

    18. Global Financial Centers Hinterland Telecommunications Space Time London Tokyo New York Los Angeles Hong Kong Singapore Stock Market Opening Period

    19. Global Production Chains and Networks • Production Chain: Materials > Procurement > Transformation > Marketing and Sales >Distribution > Service • Definition: transactionally linked sequence of functions where each stage adds value to the process of goods and services production • Two aspects important: coordination and regulation and geographical configuration • Production chains may be very localized but increasingly are global in scale to take advantage of international division of labor

    20. KIA Auto Parts Flow • Assembled in S Korea KIA Sorrento clear example of global supply chain • Uses 30K parts from all around world • Parts shipped from places as diverse as Wales and Mexico—but very risky • War in Iraq and piracy in Malacca Straits • Demonstrate surprising adaptability due to advance planning, multiple sourcing of parts and ability to shift routes on short notice

    21. KIA Auto Parts Flow • Communicates regularly with suppliers-at least once a week • Order several months in advance • If necessary use air freight instead of sea freight • Greater demand forced KIA to air freight airbags from Swedish company which makes them in the U.S. • Greater expense of trans-Pacific flight better than slowing down production line