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Post WWI Era. World History C. Simmons. Uneasy Peace, Uncertainty. Peace settlements created border disputes Americans did not become part of the League of Nations French demanded reparations- pay back costs of war Economic Problems in Germany – led to Dawes Plan, loaned Germany money

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post wwi era

Post WWI Era

World History

C. Simmons

uneasy peace uncertainty
Uneasy Peace, Uncertainty
  • Peace settlements created border disputes
  • Americans did not become part of the League of Nations
  • French demanded reparations- pay back costs of war
  • Economic Problems in Germany – led to Dawes Plan, loaned Germany money
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact – renounced war for use of policy
great depression
Great Depression
  • Causes: downturn of worlds economies in late 1920’s, collapse of U.S. stock market
  • Low economic activity and high unemployment
  • Governments did not how to fix problems, led to rise in Communism and dictators
  • The Depression challenged Democracy
democracy after the war
Democracy after the war
  • After war France became strongest European Power
  • Popular Front Organization – collective bargaining
  • John Keynes – Keyneism, government spending (deficit spending)
  • FDR was elected in 1932, New Deal – plan to get US. out of Depression, achieved sense of hope, unlike European Powers
  • How did Depression affect the World?
  • What caused problems after the war was over in Europe?
  • What did the New Deal do during the depression?
rise of dictators
Rise of Dictators
  • Italy, Spain, Germany, and Russia – all major countries except Britain and France
  • Totalitarianism – control of all aspects of citizen’s lives
  • Communism in Russia - Stalin
  • Benito Mussolini – Fascism, extreme nationalism
  • 1926 – outlawed opposition, total control, except for Rome
  • Did not achieve total control like Hitler and Stalin
new era in soviet union
New Era in Soviet Union
  • Lenin created the (NEP) New Economic Policy in 1921 – half communism and capitalism
  • 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
  • Joseph Stalin v. Leon Trotsky struggle for power
  • Stalin’s Five Year Plan and Collectivization – government took over ownership of farms
  • In 1930’s millions of Russians died (starving)
authoritarian states in west
Authoritarian States in West
  • Concerned with preserving order, but not total control
  • Parliamentary government failed in E Europe – no tradition, illiteracy, and fear democracy leads to revolution
  • Czechoslovakia – only Democratic country in E Europe
  • In 1936, Francisco Franco overthrew Spanish government, began authoritarian dictatorship
  • What happened during the Russian Revolutions?
  • How did dictators com to power after the war?
hitler and his views
Hitler and His Views
  • Born in Austria, used racism as core idea of extreme nationalism
  • Fought in WWI, Hitler would later control the National Socialist German Worker’s Party or Nazi Party
  • Popularity, staged uprising was jailed, wrot Mein Kampf outlined ideas of expansion, anti-Semitism, and anti-Communism
rise of nazism
Rise of Nazism
  • Nazism became largest party in Reichstag or parliament
  • Desperate for leader like Hitler
  • Hitler gained complete power by May 1933
  • Enabling Act allowed Hitler to take power
  • Concentration camps set up for any opposition to Nazism
  • Hitler set up totalitarian state became Fuhrer (leader)
the nazi state
The Nazi State
  • Focus on the Aryan Race
  • Hitler believed in 2 prior empires or Reichs so Hitler called his the Third Reich
  • Nazis used the Gestapo (Secret Police) to control the country, led by Heinrich Himmler
  • Rearmament program, massive building projects
  • Nuremburg Laws – Jews lost citizenship, Ghettos
  • Kristallnacht – night of broken glass
  • What was Hitler’s primary goal in building his empire?
  • What do we know today about Hitler that might could have stopped him quicker?
mass culture
Mass Culture
  • Motion pictures and radio changed mass communication
  • Radios mass produced in early 1920’s
  • Movies came out before WWI
  • Used for political purposes
  • Hitler used radio to spread propaganda
  • Nazi party had groups of people that would make movies to help influence the masses
leisure and art
Leisure and Art
  • 8 hr workday became standard = more leisure time
  • What to do? Professional sports, traveling, radio, movies, shopping, etc.
  • Art had increase in Fear and Uncertainty
  • Dada and photomontage
  • Surrealism – reality beyond material world, dreams, fantasies, etc.
  • Hitler condemned Modern Art, promote Aryan race
heroic age of physics
Heroic Age of Physics
  • Newtonian view were abandoned
  • Einstein - Not everything could be completely defined and predicted
  • Werner Heisenberg – uncertainty principle
  • Subatomic particles are not predictable but instead random, challenged Newton’s ideas
  • Why did people have more time?
  • What did Hitler and the Nazis do with the innovation of mass communication?
  • Why was the principle of uncertainty important?