How can we best use public funding for schools improve the educational outcomes of socially disadvantaged children?. Presentation for International Conference on The Right to Education for Every Child Belgrade June 2-3 2009 Rosalind Levačić, Institute of Education, University of London.
Presentation for International Conference on The Right to Education for Every Child
Belgrade June 2-3 2009
Rosalind Levačić, Institute of Education, University of London
Netherlands (from 2007) abandoned use of immigrant status and fund only in relation to parents’ education. Additional 30% for pupils whose parents’ highest level is junior secondary and 120% more for parents whose highest level is primary or less.
England: central government funds local authorities about 70% more per pupil for those with additional educational needs (about 19% with AEN) 12% of total funding is for AEN + deprivation.
AEN based mainly on social welfare payments data.
Policies in advanced economies date from 1960s.
USA: Title 1 for schools- small additional funding and not well used (e.g. withdrawal of pupils from class) Head Start and Follow Through for early years
U.K. A range of different programmes for schools. Since late 1990s stronger focus on early years and integrating education, health and social work services.
additionally funded school based programmes have had at best small positive effects.
most effective are good quality early years programmes which also involve families;
decentralization: greater focus on responsibility for delivery of results at the school level
Rate of return to expenditure on education and training (%)
Opportunity cost of funds
Age of individual
Sustained public funding rather than one-off short term projects.
can be combined with local matched funding
2. Priority areas/schools: extra funding to pay teachers more or provide more teachers per 100 pupils
3. Per pupil funding: additional funding for socially disadvantaged pupils
additional funding per socially disadvantaged pupil in relation to numbers of such pupils enrolled at the school
Per pupil funding: horizontally equitable - stops any under-funding of pupils of low socio-economic status (SES)
Funding formula can include additions for educationally disadvantaged pupils – makes them more attractive to enrol and retain.
Schools have more flexibility in how to use resources to combat educational disadvantage- provided teachers value this, have knowledge of how best to use resources, and are provided with information on their pupils’ progress in relation to SES and prior attainment compared with other schools.
1. Basic per pupil allocation could improve education for the socially disadvantaged
3. Special programmes
4. Schools’ additional site costsFour Components of a Per Capita School Funding Formula
Pupils’ additional educational needs
Dimensions of social disadvantage
Low educational achievement
Low socio-economic status
Test results at end of previous education phase
Psychological/educational assessment of the child
Income of family or area
Occupation or education of parents
Self-identification: census data from school or national survey
The indicator (or indicators) should:
e.g. focus on olympiads- with extra funding
Policies in advanced economies date from 1960s.
Netherlands Funding for schools with high proportions of socially disadvantaged pupils for additional teachers as part of formula funding.
France (Priority Education Zones) Additional pay for teachers and additional staff
Title 1 (since 1965) Reconfirmed in 2002 No Child Left Behind Act.
Federal funding to states then allocated to schools.
But relatively small amount per pupil.
Not well used (e.g. withdrawal of pupils from class)
Pre-school programme: Head Start (also from 1960s)
Evaluations: positive effects into adult hood of high quality programmes on attainment, income and reduced criminality.
home-visits, support for parents, play and learning activities; health care, special needs support.
Sure Start Evaluation (2008) Improved social development of 3 year olds
Public investment in the education of children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds creates much higher benefits over the lifetime of the child than the additional costs – but the right types of investment needed.
A complex of factors reflected by indicators of:
DATA SOURCE: NATIONAL
Children in households receiving state benefits
Low birth weight babies
Deprivation indicator of area based on income, employment and qualifications of adults
DATA SOURCE: LOCAL
English as additional language
Ethnic groups with low educational attainment
Pupils entitled to free school meals
and for higher per pupil allocation
Replaced indicator of child or parent born abroad- i.e. emphasis more recently is on social disadvantage not ethnicity
Effect ways of using additional resources depend on local contexts and cannot be determined centrally
Local professionals need to be motivated and empowered
Central control can be exercised through holding local managers to account for performance- requires appropriate data
(b) more empirical evidence
Consistent with what has been learnt in west Europe and North America about best ways to combat educational disadvantage
Is an essential component of an effective and efficient decentralised education system.
Transparency in how funds allocated and used.
Monitoring of attainment of children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds.
Evaluation of education interventions for socially disadvantaged children to learn which are cost effective and which not.
White: British White: Irish Traveller of Irish Heritage Gypsy/Roma Any other White background Mixed: White and Black Caribbean Mixed: White and Black African Mixed: White and Asian Any other Mixed background Asian or Asian British: Indian Asian or Asian British: Pakistani Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi Any other Asian background Black or Black British: Caribbean Black or Black British: African Any other Black background Chinese or other ethnic group: Chinese Any other
Parents supply information when registering child: self-classification