Download
alcohol withdrawal therapeutic interventions n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Alcohol Withdrawal Therapeutic Interventions PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Alcohol Withdrawal Therapeutic Interventions

Alcohol Withdrawal Therapeutic Interventions

113 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Alcohol Withdrawal Therapeutic Interventions

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. The University of New Mexico Health Science Center Alcohol WithdrawalTherapeutic Interventions Lenka Hřebíčková, Pharm.D. ICU/ER Clinical Pharmacist III

  2. The University of New Mexico Health Science Center Therapeutic Goals • Over-treatment vs. under-treatment • Control agitation • Light somnolence • Amount of medication required vary from patient to patient • Taper to prevent the emergence of breakthrough symptoms and withdrawal seizures • Prevent complications

  3. The University of New Mexico Health Science Center Therapeutic Options • Benzodiazepines • Phenobarbital • Propofol • Dexmedetomidine Crit Care Med 2010 Vol. 38, No.9

  4. The University of New Mexico Health Science Center Benzodiazepines • 1st line agents • Better efficacy, good margin of safety, lower potential of abuse • No specific benzodiazepine is recommended for use • Selection of agent based on kinetic parameters, potential for abuse, cost • MCH: • GABA agonist • Increases the frequency of GABA chloride channel opening – alcohol replacement Crit Care Med 2010 Vol. 38, No.9 CMAJ. 1999;160:649-655

  5. The University of New Mexico Health Science Center Benzodiazepines – Which One? • Duration of activity • Long: prevent breakthrough • Short: elderly, hepatic or renal disease • Pharmacokinetics • Absorption: • Affects time to onset • Distribution • Lipophillicity • Metabolism • Oxidation (CYP P450 system) vs. conjugation, active metabolites • Elimination

  6. The University of New Mexico Health Science Center Benzodiazepines Comparison

  7. The University of New Mexico Health Science Center Not intubated and responsive: CIWA-Ar Intubated and non-responsive: Sedation scale (Riker, etc.) Delirium assessment (CAM-ICU, ICDSC) Assessment Recommendation

  8. The University of New Mexico Health Science Center Benzodiazepines: Optimal Regimen • Dosing is variable (various protocols) • Symptom-triggered vs. fixed-schedule • Two studies in general population: • Daeppen JB, et al: Symptom-triggered vs fixed-schedule doses of benzodiazepine for alcohol withdrawal: A randomized treatment trial. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:1117-1121. • Saitz R, et al: Individualized treatment for alcohol withdrawal. A randomized double-blind controlled trial. JAMA 1994; 272:519-523 • One study in ICU: • Spies CD, et al: Alcohol withdrawal severity is decreased by symptom-oriented adjusted bolus therapy in the ICU. Intensive Care Med 2003; 29:2230-2238

  9. The University of New Mexico Health Science Center Benzodiazepines: Symptom-Triggered Approach in Non-ICU Patients • Daeppen JB, et al: Symptom-triggered vs fixed-schedule doses of benzodiazepine for alcohol withdrawal: A randomized treatment trial. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:1117-1121 • Prospective, randomized, double-blinded controlled trial • 117 patients admitted to alcohol treatment inpatient program at Lausanne and Geneva university hospitals in Switzerland • Fixed schedule: oxazepam 30 mg PO Q6H for 4 doses, then 15 mg PO Q6H for 8 doses and PRN oxazepam • Symptom triggered: placebo 30 mg PO Q6H x 4 doses, then placebo 15 mg PO Q6H for 8 doses, CIWA-Ar score > 8 – 15 received 15 mg of oxazepam, CIWA-Ar score > 15 received 30 mg oxazepam; Q30min • Results: • Similar demographics between groups • Only 22 (39%) patients in ST group were treated with oxazepam vs. 100% in FS group (p < 0.001) • Mean oxazepam dose: 37.5 mg ST vs. 231.4 mg FS (p < 0.001) • Mean duration of treatment: 20 hr ST vs. 62.7 hr FS (p < 0.001)

  10. The University of New Mexico Health Science Center Benzodiazepines: Symptom-Triggered Approach in Non-ICU Patients • Saitz R, et al: Individualized treatment for alcohol withdrawal. A randomized double-blind controlled trial. JAMA 1994; 272:519-523 • Chlordiazepoxide QID with PRN medications (FS; Fixed-Schedule) vs. chlordiazepoxide PRN (ST; Symptom-Triggered) • Randomized double-blind, controlled trial • Inpatient detoxification unit in a Veterans Affairs • 111 eligible patients • Results: • Similar demographics • Total chlordiazepoxide doses: 100 mg ST vs. 425 mg FS (p < 0.001) • Mean duration of treatment: 9 hr ST vs. 68 hr FS (p < 0.001)

  11. The University of New Mexico Health Science Center Benzodiazepines: Symptom-Triggered Approach in ICU • Spies CD, et al. Intensive Care Med 2003:29;2230-2238. • Flunitrazepam (infusion) + clonidine + haloperidol vs. flunitrazepam (PRN) + clonidine (PRN) + haloperidol (PRN) • Prospective, randomized, controlled trial • Surgical ICU patients • Inclusion: non-intubated, CIWA-Ar > 20 • Notable exclusion: concurrent acute medical illness (hypoxia, infection) • Both groups titrated to CIWA-Ar score

  12. The University of New Mexico Health Science Center Benzodiazepines: Symptom-Triggered Approach in ICU Spies CD, et al. Intensive Care Med 2003;29: 2230-38.

  13. The University of New Mexico Health Science Center Phenobarbital • Used if benzodiazepine-resistance • Doses of diazepam > 40 mg/1hr • Down-regulation of GABA receptors • Higher rates of intubation, longer ICU stay • Phenobarbital augment benzodiazepines at GABA and inhibits stimulatory glutamate receptors • Gold JA, et al: Crit Care Med 2007;35:724-30 • Retrospective cohort study • Subjects admitted to the medical ICU with severe alcohol withdrawal • Symptom-triggered treatment: diazepam 10 mg IV up to 100-150 mg, then phenobarbital 65-260 mg IV + diazepam IV, then propofol • Results: • Need for mechanical ventilation: Pre 47% and Post 22% • Among patients requiring MV, less DZP administered in first 24 hrs 120 mg vs. 280 mg, p = 0.01 • High doses of benzodiazepines in some subjects is necessary

  14. The University of New Mexico Health Science Center Propofol • Recommended in patients uncontrolled with larger benzodiazepine doses • Activates GABAa receptor and blocks stimulatory NMDA receptor • Case reports and series • Concerns: hypertriglyceridemia, pancreatitis, propofol-related infusion syndrome

  15. The University of New Mexico Health Science Center Dexmedetomidine • Centrally acting alpha-2 receptor agonist • Mediate hyper-adrenergic response • Only patient case reports • Predominately severe alcohol withdrawal • No phenobarbital or propofol used • Alleviates ethanol withdrawal in rats (rigidity, tremor, and irritability) • Adjunct therapy to benzodiazepines • Neuroprotective? • Role? • Expensive Rovasalo A, et al. General Hospital Psychiatry 28 (2006) 362-363 Darrouj J, et al: Ann Pharmacother 2008; 42:1703-1705.

  16. The University of New Mexico Health Science Center UNMH Alcohol Withdrawal Protocol Based on and adapted from alcohol withdrawal protocol at Bayfront Medical Center CriticalCareNurse Vol 30, No. 3, June 2010