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Music of the Enlightenment. “Today there is but one music in all of Europe.” –Michel Paul de Chabanon. Sonata Form. The evolution of music in the Enlightenment. 3 main parts of the Sonata Form. Exposition —where themes are presented Development —where themes are treated in new ways

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music of the enlightenment
Music of the Enlightenment

“Today there is but one music in all of Europe.”

–Michel Paul de Chabanon

sonata form

Sonata Form

The evolution of music in the Enlightenment

3 main parts of the sonata form
3 main parts of the Sonata Form
  • Exposition—where themes are presented
  • Development—where themes are treated in new ways
  • Recapitulation—where the themes return
classical symphony

Classical Symphony

The continued evolution of music in the Enlightenment

the classical symphony
The Classical Symphony
  • from Latin symphonia, “a sounding together”
    • meaning, a symphony is a longer, more developed musical composition that usually lasts between twenty and forty-five minutes
  • Classical symphonies contain movements which vary in theme and tempo
Types of movements:1. & 4. Allegro—In a quick, lively tempo.
      • Usually begins and ends a symphony, but may be proceeded by the adagio

2. Adagio—In a slow tempo.

3. Andante (andante moderato)—In a moderately slow tempo.

3. Minuet—A slow, stately pattern dance in 3/4 time.

the classical orchestra
The Classical Orchestra
  • Approximately 30 string violin, cello, and viola players
  • Also, 2 players each for the oboe, flute, bassoon, horns, trumpets, kettledrums, and clarinet
    • Beethoven often increased this demand for instruments and also added extra ones like the piccolo and trombone.
Began writing symphonies in 1757

(7 years after the death of Bach and the marked end of the Baroque music age)

  • Wrote 104 symphonies (possibly more) in about 50 years
    • (Yikes! More than 2 a year! Eat your heart out John Williams!)
symphony no 94 in g major surprise 1792
Symphony No. 94 in G Major, “Surprise” (1792)

The 2nd movement, the andante, is the most well-known movement for it’s simple, charming theme and the dramatic musical surprise.

  • The movement is in a theme and variations form (AA’A’’A’’’A’’’’)
symphony no 104 in d major 1795
Symphony No. 104 in D Major, (1795)
  • Listen to:
  • “London symphony”
    • Written for performance in London
    • Folk dance character
    • Bagpipe-like drone
  • Finale movement
    • Allegro
Wrote 41 symphonies
  • Wrote in other genres: opera, keyboard works, choral works
  • Melody writer
  • Died at the age of 35
  • Always financially insecure
  • Listen to parts of Piano Concerto in A Minor
Crossover composer
    • Part of the Classical period & the Romantic
  • Deaf at the end of his life
  • “Immortal Beloved”
    • Story of Beethoven
Wanted to expand the classical symphonic form to accommodate greater emotional character.
    • This expansion of the classical symphony style is what helped lead the music of the EP into the Romantic period. Mozart helped with this as well in his later symphonies.
  • The typical classical symphony has movements with contrasting and unrelated themes.
  • Beethoven’s works differ because he used more of a similar theme throughout the entire symphony to give it more emotional unity.
Beethoven’s works are more dramatic with more dynamics to make more emotional effect.
    • Listen to selection from Symphony No. 5
      • Beethoven described it as “fate knocking at the door”
      • The work was first performed on 22 December 1808, at an enormous concert typical of the age - which also saw the first performance of the 'Pastoral' symphony, the fourth piano concerto, the Choral Fantasia and parts of the C major Mass.
      • Established the pattern of what later became known as the "finale symphony"
Listen to Finale of Symphony No. 9
    • Last movement of the symphony
    • Beethoven included vocals to create drama
    • Very well-known to the general public