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Plant Names and Classification. Chapter 16. Outline. Introduction Development of the Binomial System of Nomenclature Linnaeus The International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants Development of the Kingdom Concept Classification of Major Groups The Species Concept.

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outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Development of the Binomial System of Nomenclature
    • Linnaeus
    • The International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants
  • Development of the Kingdom Concept
  • Classification of Major Groups
  • The Species Concept
introduction
Introduction
  • All living organisms given two-word Latin scientific name = species name
    • Only one correct scientific name for species
    • Many common names may be given to same species
      • Dicentracucullaria - Dutchman’s breeches, little-boy’s breeches, monkshood, boys-and-girls, soldier’s cap, white hearts,…, plus others in different languages
    • Or one common name applied to number of different species
      • Monkshood for Dicentracucullariaand Aconitum species
development of the binomial system of nomenclature
Development of the Binomial System of Nomenclature
  • 1st attempt to organize/classify plants - Theophrastus(4thcentury B.C.)
    • Classified nearly 500 plants by leaf characteristics
  • 13th century - distinction made between monocots and dicots
  • Beginning of 18th century - details of fruit and flower structure, in addition to form and habit, used in classification schemes
    • Latin phrase name given to plants and animals
      • First word of phrase indicated genus (plural: genera)
development of the binomial system of nomenclature1
Development of the Binomial System of Nomenclature
  • Carolus Linnaeus (1707–1778) - established Binomial System of Nomenclature
  • Published Species Plantarum, 1753
  • Changed Latin phrases to reflect relationships and placed one to many species in each genus
    • Abbreviated names to 2 parts (binomials)
development of the binomial system of nomenclature2
Development of the Binomial System of Nomenclature
  • Binomial System of Nomenclature
    • All species named according to this system, includes authority for species name
      • Spearmint: Menthaspicata L.

A page from Species Plantarum by Linnaeus

the international code of nomenclature for algae fungi and plants
The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants
  • Book standardizes rules governing naming and classification of plants
    • Linnaeus starting point for names
    • Rules revised and expanded at periodic international botanical congresses
    • Has English, French and German translations
    • Requires 2 steps to officially recognize new plant species:
      • English or Latin description or diagnosis must be published in journal or other public publication
      • Author must designate type specimen deposited in herbarium
development of the kingdom concept
Development of the Kingdom Concept
  • When classification schemes first developed, organisms placed in either Plant Kingdom or Animal Kingdom
    • Distinction works well for complex animals, but not for simpler organisms
  • Hogg and Haeckel proposed 3rd kingdom in 1860’s
    • All organisms that did not develop complex tissues placed in Kingdom Protoctista
development of the kingdom concept1
Development of the Kingdom Concept
  • In 1938, Copeland assigned single-celled, prokaryotic organisms to Kingdom Monera, leaving algae, fungi and single-celled eukaryotic organisms in Protoctista
  • In 1969, Whittaker developed 5-kingdom system
    • Split Fungi from Kingdom Protista
  • In 1980s, Woese argued Monerashould be split into Archaea and Bacteria, resulting in 6 kingdoms
    • Archaea, Bacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
classification of major groups
Classification of Major Groups
  • 3 domains: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
  • Depending on classification system, between 12-30 plant phyla recognized
  • In-between categories, such as subphylum, subclass, suborders subspecies, varieties and forms also used
classification of major groups1
Classification of Major Groups
  • 1st part of species name = genus
  • 2ndpart of species name = specific epithet
    • Specific epithet followed by author(s)who named the plant
  • Taxonomists specialize in identifying, naming, and classifying organisms
  • Systematists incorporate evolutionary processes to sort out natural relationships
  • Dichotomous keyshelp identify organisms
    • Choose features from paired statements that most closely apply to organism
the species concept
The Species Concept
  • Morphological species concept - species defined by morphology
  • Interbreeding species concept -species a population capable of interbreeding and reproductively isolated from other groups
  • Ecological species concept - species a group of related individuals that occupy unique ecological niche
the species concept1
The Species Concept
  • Cladistic species concept - species determined by phylogenetic history
    • Individuals with common evolutionary background = species
      • Cladistic methodsused to determine evolutionary history
        • Examines natural relationships among organisms, based on shared features
        • Relationships portrayed on cladograms
        • Value or form of feature referred to as character state
        • Hypotheses made about which state ancestral
the species concept2
The Species Concept
  • In trying to choose best cladograms, taxonomists use principle of parsimony
    • Occam’s razor - “One should not make more assumptions than the minimum needed to explain anything.”
  • Best cladograminterpreted as that which requires fewest evolutionary changes in taxa involved
the species concept3
The Species Concept
  • Eclectic species concept - single criterion not sufficient to identify species
    • Morphological, geographical, biological and ecological criteria must be used when defining species
  • Nominalistic species concept - species do not exist
    • Evolutionary unit of importance local interbreeding population
review
Review
  • Introduction
  • Development of the Binomial System of Nomenclature
    • Linnaeus
    • The International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants
  • Development of the Kingdom Concept
  • Classification of Major Groups
  • The Species Concept