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Human Geography. Northern Europe. Introduction. U.K., Ireland, and the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). Waves of migrating people settled Northern Europe (ancient times) Ancient inhabitants of Great Britain were Celtic.

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human geography

Human Geography

Northern Europe

introduction
Introduction
  • U.K., Ireland, and the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden).
  • Waves of migrating people settled Northern Europe (ancient times)
  • Ancient inhabitants of Great Britain were Celtic.
  • Beginning about 795 CE Norsemen (vikings) from Denmark, Norway, and Sweden “terrorized” Europe.
great britain s empire
Great Britain’s Empire
  • Great Britain built an empire that strongly affected world history. U.K established in 1801 (Whales, Ireland, and Scotland).
  • Drew on its geographic advantage to grow in strength.

*Island

-Built a global empire

-By the 1800s had colonies in the Americas, Asia, Africa, and Oceania. Transmission of culture worldwide.

-“The sun never sets on the British empire

moving into the modern age
Moving into the Modern Age
  • Great Britain played a role in shaping our modern world in two ways:
  • 1. Representative government 2. Industrial Revolution
  • Britain’s government is a monarchy that also has a parliament
  • Parliament: representative lawmaking body whose members are elected or appointed. Iceland has the oldest Parliament in the world (930).
  • Over the centuries English rulers lost power to the English parliament. (Magna Carta- 1215, English Bill of Rights- 1689).
industrial revolution
Industrial Revolution
  • Access to natural resources (iron ore, coal) allowed Great Britain to become the first industrial nation.
  • Coal used as fuel and iron to make machinery
  • Growth of industry motivated Britain’s empire building (raw materials and markets).
  • In the 1800s, industrialization spread to other countries (Belgium, France, Germany, and the U.S.)
  • Post-WW II, colonies gain independence
  • Many former colonies experience ethnic conflicts because boundaries had been est. without regard to traditional living areas.
irish question
Irish Question
  • Protestant English rulers strengthened their hold on Catholic Ireland by seizing Irish land.
  • Many Irish were left in poverty.
  • 1840s potatoes famine and migration
  • Calls for independence, and in 1921 Britain divided Ireland into two states- independent Republic of Ireland (Catholic), and Northern Ireland (protestant) which remained with U.K.
  • Religious conflicts and anti-British violence in North.
economics
Economics
  • Highly developed and varied economy
  • Industry and resources: (G.B. and Sweden) motor vehicle, aerospace, paper products, and pharmaceuticals.
  • High-Tech: production of computer software and hardware. *Silicon Glen- area in Scotland that has many high-tech companies. It produces 32% of Europe's personal computers, 51% of notebook computers
union or independence
Union or Independence
  • Most nations of this region joined the EU, but Norway did not.
  • Euro- common currency of the EU.
  • Denmark voted against euro
culture
Culture
  • Northern Europe- Germanic languages
  • Protestant, only Ireland is predominately Catholic
  • GB- Shakesspeare(literature), Wordsworth (poetr
  • Irish- James Joyce (novelist, shaped modern fiction)
slide13
Life
  • High standard of living
  • Social Welfare- government responsibility for the welfare of its people= high taxes.
  • Finland/Norway/Sweden- yearly allowance to raise children
  • National heath insurance programs

2010 UN HDI: Prosperity Index:

1 Norway 0.938

2 Australia 0.937

3 New Zealand 0.907

4 United States 0.902

5 Ireland 0.895

6 Liechtenstein 0.891

7 Netherlands 0.89

8 Canada 0.888

9 Sweden 0.885

10 Germany

1 Norway 0.938

2 Australia 0.937

3 New Zealand 0.907

4 United States 0.902

5 Ireland 0.895

6 Liechtenstein 0.891

7 Netherlands 0.89

8 Canada 0.888

9 Sweden 0.885

10 Germany

slide14

2010 UN HDI: Prosperity Index:

  • 1 Norway 0.938
  • 2 Australia 0.937
  • 3 New Zealand 0.907
  • 4 United States 0.902
  • 5 Ireland 0.895
  • 6 Liechtenstein 0.891
  • 7 Netherlands 0.89
  • 8 Canada 0.888
  • 9 Sweden 0.885
  • 10 Germany
  • Prosperity Index:
  • 1 Norway 0.938
  • 2 Australia 0.937
  • 3 New Zealand 0.907
  • 4 United States 0.902
  • 5 Ireland 0.895
  • 6 Liechtenstein 0.891
  • 7 Netherlands 0.89
  • 8 Canada 0.888
  • 9 Sweden 0.885
  • 10 Germany