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The Roman Empire. Period of Peace and Prosperity (27 B.C. to 180 A.D) Empire was size of U.S.A. with 70-90 mil people Augustus implemented this time of peace by returning to old values: simplicity, sober conduct, patriotism. The Pax Romana.

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the pax romana

Period of Peace and Prosperity (27 B.C. to 180 A.D)

Empire was size of U.S.A. with 70-90 mil people

Augustus implemented this time of peace by returning to old values: simplicity, sober conduct, patriotism

The PaxRomana
trade during time of augustus

Used a common currency (the denarius), making trade easier throughout different part of the empire

Removed tariffs between provinces making trade more successful

Built roads: one of the most important and lasting aspects of Rome

Also discovered & engineered aqueducts to cities, making them more inviting for trade centers

Trade during time of augustus
civil service

Senators kept titles and salaries, but no real power

Gave most work of running the city to Plebeians and Slaves

These were salaried positions needed to keep the empire running and strong: road repair, postal work, grain supply, etc.

These jobs prevented slaves from revolting

Civil service
julian emperors

Four emperors all from family lineage of Caesar

None as talented as Augustus but maintained the peace of the PaxRomana

Julian emperors
succession

Who was to rule once an emperor died and whose decision was it?

    • Dying emperor?
    • Senate?
    • Succesful military leader?
    • Praetorian Guard (guards of the city of Rome and body guards to the emperor)?
  • Arguments, disagreements, civil war, and murder often ensued
  • In one 18 month period, they were 4 emperors due to constant assassination
succession
the good emperors

Each chose their successor before death

Transition occurred for 85 years without bloodshed

Only some were actually “good” leaders, but called Good Emperors because avoided turmoil for the state

Last Good Emperor, Marcus Aurelius, died in 180 A.D. bringing an end to the PaxRomana

The good emperors
literature of the early empire

Greek inspiration led to strong Roman writers

Augustus expected Patriotism

Livy: Wrote patriotic history of Rome

Virgil: Epic Poet who wrote most famous body of Latin work, The Aeneid (copied style from Homer and even traced Roman history back to the Trojan War)

Literature of the early empire
silver age of literature

Criticism replaced patriotism

Satire

Juvenal: satirical writer who wrote morals of individuals in Rome

Tacitus: satirical writer who condemned Rome’s government

No punishment for satire because Rome was so secure and thriving, not threatened by disapproval

Silver age of literature
law of the roman republic

Based on stoicism

    • Innocent until proven guilty
    • Right to face your accusers and defend yourself
    • Reasonable Doubt = innocent
    • Ability to change laws
  • Influenced throughout Western Civilization until current day
Law of the roman republic
drastic difference for rich and poor

Wealthy threw large parties with so many courses of food they built a vomitorium in their home

Poor lived in awful, rat-infested, conditions

Empire provided food and housing for those in need, however

Drastic difference for rich and poor
religion in the empire

Greco-roman gods no longer believed in but were symbolic of loyalty to the empire

Religious toleration as long as respected tradition of the gods and held emperor acclaimed as a god

BIG problem for monotheists: Jews and Christians

Religion in the empire
jews in the empire

Jews not willing to worship emperor as god

Romans were fairly tolerant of Jews allowing freedom of religion and excused from worshipping emperor

Jews still opposed Roman rule and Zealots rebelled in 66 A.D.

Romans defeated rebellion and ended Jewish state for 2,000 (but religion endured)

Jews in the empire
jesus

Jesus was a Jew

Began ministry at age 30

He was a wondering prophet and teacher

Not impressed by wealth or status, so became very popular among the poor

He valued morals and ethics

He was hailed as a Messiah

Many Romans believed he threatened Roman authority and he was crucified

jesus
slide19

Never knew Jesus

Most profoundly influenced spread of Christianity

Paul traveled freely throughout empire to spread word due to stability of PaxRomana

Claimed Jesus was son of God

Believers will be saved by faith in Gog and grace of God

Christianity was open to all– Jews and non-Jews

paul
christian persecution

Nero persecuted the Christians

Then many emperors persecuted Christians upon fall of the PaxRomana

Emperors wanted to be gods

Christians could recant their belief or maintain their beliefs and be tortured and killed

This showed weakness of Empire (think satire)

By 200 A.D., about 10% of Empire was Christian

Christian persecution
peter

Disciple selected by Jesus

Served as Rome’s first bishop

Later there were bishops in all major cities, but the bishop of Rome was considered most important

Eventually the Roman bisho become Pope

This belief in a pope become the Petrine Doctrine

peter
the fall of the empire

The decline happened in three stages

  • “Crisis of the Third Century”
    • Political, economic, and military problems
  • Division of the Empire
    • Empire divided into east and west
  • Barbarian Invasion
    • Empire collapses in 476 A.D.
The Fall of the empire
crisis of the 3 rd century

Economic

    • Trade routes ended due to barbarians and pirates
    • Gold and silver gone from buying luxuries in foreign lands
    • Inflation due to coins no longer having value of silver
    • Agriculture declined, possibly from over-worked soil
Crisis of the 3rd century
crisis of the 3 rd century1

Military

    • Losses to the Goths
    • Loss to Persia
    • Began using mercenary soldiers
Crisis of the 3rd century
crisis of the 3 rd century2

Political

    • Lack of loyalty due to lack of political participation
    • Those that did serve were required to collect taxes; if unable, they had to pay themselves
    • Armies became interested in politics and tried to use force to govern the empire
Crisis of the 3rd century
division of the empire

Diocletian

    • Became Emperor in 284 A.D. for 21 yrs.
    • Greatly attempted reform to restore strength to the empire
      • Doubled size of army
      • Price and wage control to halt inflation
      • Restore old gods, persecute Christians
      • Split the Empire into East and West for manageability
    • These reforms were not all successful but did halt the decline of Rome during his reign
Division of the empire
division of the empire1

Constantine

    • Military commander who was fighting for control of empire after Diocletian’s rule
    • Implemented Edict of Milan (freedom of religion) after winning Battle at Milvian Bridge
    • He then gained control of both eastern and western halves
    • Moved capital to eastern half and named it Constantinople
    • Empire still split, but eastern half now more powerful
Division of the empire
barbarian invasions

Invasions for a century by Germanic tribes

Germanic tribes feared the Huns who moved west from Asia, forcing them south into Rome

Huns came to Rome but Pope Leo I convinced Attila to leave

14 yr. old, Romulus Augustulus, was last emperor who lost to Odoacer

Barbarian invasions