Preliminary study of electron hadron discrimination with the neucal detector
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11th ICATPP - Conference on Astroparticle , Particle, Space Physics, Detectors and Medical Physics Applications 5-9 October 2009, Villa Olmo (Co), Italy. Preliminary study of electron/ hadron discrimination with the NEUCAL detector. Lorenzo Bonechi University and INFN – Florence (Italy).

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Preliminary study of electron hadron discrimination with the neucal detector

11th ICATPP - Conference on Astroparticle, Particle, Space Physics, Detectors and Medical Physics Applications

5-9 October 2009, Villa Olmo (Co), Italy

Preliminary study of electron/hadron discrimination with the NEUCAL detector

Lorenzo Bonechi

University and INFN – Florence (Italy)


The neucal working group
The NEUCAL working group

O. Adriani1,2, L. Bonechi1,2, M. Bongi2, S. Bottai2,

G. Castellini3, R. D’Alessandro1,2, M. Grandi2, P. Papini2,

S. Ricciarini2, G. Sguazzoni2, G. Sorichetti1, P. Sona1,2,

P. Spillantini1,2, E. Vannuccini2, A. Viciani2

University of Florence

INFN Section of Florence

IFAC – CNR, Florence

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Outline of this presentation
Outline of this presentation

  • Basic ideas

    • e/hadrons discrimination with e.m. calorimeters

    • Use of neutron detectors (PAMELA experiment)

    • The new NEUCAL concept

  • Simulations

  • The prototype detector

    • Description of apparatus and assembling

  • Test beam at CERN SPS (August 2009)

    • Event show and first preliminary comparison with the GEANT4 simulation

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Part 1
PART 1

Basic ideas

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


E hadrons discrimination in hep
e/hadrons discrimination in HEP

Two events detected by the PAMELA space experiment

36 GeV/c

proton

18 GeV/c

electron

SILICON TRACKER

MAGNET

TRIG. SCINTI.

E.M. CALO

  • Common requirement for HEP experiments

    • particularly important for those devoted to Astroparticle Physics

  • Electromagnetic calorimeters

    • very good discrimination capability in a wide energy range

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


The situation at higher energy
The situation at higher energy

  • Interacting protons with energy beyond few hundreds GeV can be tagged as electrons due to

    • similar energy release in calorimeter than electrons

    • similar shower development than electrons

  • It is not possible, especially for space experiments, to increase too much the calorimeter depth

    • strong limitation in weight and power consumption

  • Complementary detectors, like trackers, cannot help easily at these energies

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


The use of a neutron counter in pamela
The use of a neutron counter in PAMELA

18 GeV/c

electron

36 GeV/c

proton

  • Neutron production:

    • Protons: nuclear excitation, hadronic interaction and Giant Resonance

    • Electrons: only through the Giant Resonance

  • Differentyield in neutronproduction are expected for e.m. or hadronic showers

  • New idea in PAMELA: use a neutron counter as the final stage of the apparatus (beyond calorimeter)

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Detection of neutrons produced inside the calorimeter the neucal concept
Detection of neutrons produced inside the calorimeter: the NEUCAL concept

New idea in NEUCAL:

  • Study of the moderation phase using an active moderator

  • Standard plastic scintillators are rich in hydrogen and then suitable as moderators(EljenEJ-230  [CH2CH(C6H4CH3)]n )

  • Detection of:

    • signals due to neutron elastic/inelastic scattering

    • signals due to absorption of neutrons by 3He (proportional tubes)

n

PMT or

Si-PMT

SCINT

3He tube

PAMELA:

Moderation of neutrons by means of passive moderator (polyethylene layers)

3He proportional tubes to absorb thermal neutrons and detect signals due to the ionization of products inside gas

n + 3He  3H + p (Q = 0.764 MeV)

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Part 2
PART 2 NEUCAL concept

Simulation

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Few details and results
Few details and results NEUCAL concept

12 scintillator layers

BGO

tiles

30 X0

NEUCAL

3He Tubes

(1 cm diam.)

  • First results based on FLUKA, now implementing also GEANT4 simulation

  • Detector geometry has been dimensioned for application together with a 30 X0 calorimeter (CALET experiment)

    • NEUCAL is placed downstream a 30 X0 deep homogeneous BGO calorimeter

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Distribution of number of neutrons
Distribution of number of neutrons NEUCAL concept

Note: energy release inside the BGO calorimeter is almost the same for 1TeV protons and 400 GeV electrons.

1 TeV protons

400 GeV electrons

FLUKA

FLUKA

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Scatter plot arrival time vs neutron energy
Scatter plot: NEUCAL conceptarrival timevsneutron energy

Almost all neutrons exit from the calorimeter within a few microseconds, but thermalization inside neucal can take hundreds microseconds

1 keV

1 MeV

1 GeV

Arrival time (seconds)

1 s

100 ns

10 ns

Outgoing neutron energy Log (E(GeV)/1GeV)

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Expected performance comparison fluka geant4
Expected performance (comparison FLUKA/GEANT4) NEUCAL concept

FLUKA simulated energy release inside one scintillator layer

See also: S.Bottai et al., at Frontier Detector for Frontier Physics, La Biodola (Elba), 24-30 May 2009

Neutrons up to few MeV kinetic energy are moderated and detected with high efficiency.

At 10 MeV 70% of neutrons gives detectable signals.

Only 10% are fully moderated to be detectable by the 3He Tubes

ENTRIES

1 MeV neutrons

ENTRIES

10 MeV neutrons

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Part 3
PART 3 NEUCAL concept

The prototype detector

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Production of scintillators
Production of scintillators NEUCAL concept

Light guides: simple plexiglas

One side covered with aluminized tape

Scintillator material:

Eljen Technology, type EJ-230 (PVT, equivalent to BC-408)

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Production of prototype detecting modules
Production of prototype detecting modules NEUCAL concept

PMT

Hamamatsu R5946

Optical grease: Saint Gobain BC-630

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Production of the first module
Production of the first module NEUCAL concept

3He proportional counter tube: Canberra 12NH25/1

1 cm diameter

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Prototype assembly
Prototype assembly NEUCAL concept

3x3 matrix of scintillator modules with 5 3He proportional counter tubes integrated

1 cm diameter

3He tubes

PMT

light guide

scintillator

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Digitalization electronics
Digitalization electronics NEUCAL concept

  • CAEN V1731 board

  • VME standard

  • 8 ch, 500MS/s

  • 8 bit ADC

  • 2MB/ch memory (few ms digitization)

  • 16 ns jitter

  • On-board data compression (Zero Suppression Encoding)

  • CAEN V1720 board

  • VME standard

  • 8 ch, 250MS/s

  • 12 bit ADC

  • 2MB/ch memory (few ms digitization)

  • 32 ns jitter

  • On-board data compression (Zero Suppression Encoding)

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Part 4
PART 4 NEUCAL concept

Test beam at CERN SPS (August 2009)

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Integration of the neucal prototype with a 16 x 0 tungsten calorimeter 25 july 2009
Integration of the NEUCAL prototype with a 16 X NEUCAL concept0 tungsten calorimeter (25 July 2009)

CALORIMETER

NEUCAL

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Preliminary study of electron hadron discrimination with the neucal detector

CALORIMETER NEUCAL concept

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Beam test details
Beam test details NEUCAL concept

  • CERN SPS, line H4 (one week test)

  • Beam type – energy - # of events:

    • Pions 350 GeV ( 230000 events)

    • electrons 100 GeV ( 240000 events)

    • electrons 150 GeV ( 50000 events)

    • muons 150 GeV(130000 events)

  • Data collected in different configurations

    • scan of detector (beam impact point)

    • different working parameters

      • PMTs and tubes voltages

      • Digitizer boards parameters (thresholds, data compression…)

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Detectors configuration
Detectors’ configuration NEUCAL concept

NEU

CAL

16 X0

W

CALO

ELECTRON

beam

Total thickness upstream NEUCAL: 16 X0

NEU

CAL

16 X0

W

CALO

PION

beam

9 X0

Pb

2.25 X0

PbWO4`

30

Total thickness upstream NEUCAL: (16+13) X0

Next slides report a comparison of data with GEANT4 simul. for electron and pion events taken in the following configurations:

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


How to find neutron signals
How to find neutron signals? NEUCAL concept

Trigger

Prompt

signal

Particle

signal

?

Scint.

A

time

Particle

signal

Prompt

signal

Scint.

B

time

t=0

t10us

t=1ms

  • Digitalization of scint. output for a long time interval (1ms)

  • Look for signals which are not in time with other signals on other channels:

    • Avoid the prompt signals due to charged particles coming directly from the shower

    • Avoid single charged particles giving signals on more then one scintillator (non interacting hadrons entering the detector

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Digitalization of one muon event
Digitalization of one NEUCAL conceptmuon event

Trigger signals

UPSTREAM

t ~700ns

1

2

3

t = 0

4

5

Bounces are due to additional filters on the digitizer inputs to solve a problem of firmware (loss of fast signals)

Scintillators

3He tubes

DOWNSTREAM

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Digitalization of one electron event
Digitalization of one NEUCAL conceptelectron event

Trigger signals

UPSTREAM

1

2

3

All signals rise at t = 0

(prompt shower secondaries)

4

5

Scintillators

3He tubes

DOWNSTREAM

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Digitalization of pion events 1
Digitalization of NEUCAL conceptpion events (1)

Trigger signals

UPSTREAM

1

2

3

t ~34 s

4

5

t ~100 s

Scintillators

3He tubes

DOWNSTREAM

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Digitalization of pion events 2
Digitalization of NEUCAL conceptpion events (2)

Trigger signals

UPSTREAM

1

3

2

t ~46.8s

t ~28.5s

5

4

t ~250s

Scintillators

3He tubes

DOWNSTREAM

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Digitalization of pion events 3
Digitalization of NEUCAL conceptpion events (3)

Trigger signals

UPSTREAM

t ~14.6s

t ~170s

1

2

3

t ~250s

4

5

t ~12.6s

Scintillators

3He tubes

DOWNSTREAM

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


First preliminary comparison data mc
First NEUCAL conceptpreliminary comparison data/MC

  • 33000 events

  • “single” signals

  • one single central PMT

    • GEANT4

    • data

100 GeV ELECTRONS

Instrumental effect

?

ENERGY

Spurious particles

ARRIVAL TIME

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


First preliminary comparison data mc1
First NEUCAL conceptpreliminary comparison data/MC

  • 75000 events

  • “single” signals

  • one single central PMT

    • GEANT4

    • data

350 GeV PIONS

?

ENERGY

Spurious particles

ARRIVAL TIME

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Comparison data mc signal energy distribution
Comparison data/MC: signal NEUCAL conceptenergy distribution

33000 ELECTRON events

GEANT4

PRELIMINARY

75000 PION events

GEANT4

PRELIMINARY

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Comparison data mc time distribution
Comparison data/MC: NEUCAL concepttime distribution

33000 ELECTRON events

GEANT4

PRELIMINARY

75000 PION events

GEANT4

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Conclusions
Conclusions NEUCAL concept

  • A new neutron detector, NEUCAL, is under study for particle identification purposes

  • Its aim is to help e.m. calorimeters in e/hadron separation at H.E.

  • New idea: use an active moderator (plastic scintillator) to moderate the neutrons and detect their signals simoultaneously

  • A prototype has been developed e tested with charged particles during a beam test at CERN SPS (August 2009)

  • First very preliminarycomparison between data and GEANT4 simulation shows substantial agreement, even if some effects is not yet understood (instrumental effect?)

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Backup slides
Backup slides NEUCAL concept

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Expected performance
Expected performance NEUCAL concept

Simulated energy release inside NEUCAL (12 scintillator layers detector)

S.Bottai et al., at Frontier Detector for Frontier Physics,

La Biodola (Elba), 24-30 May 2009

Neutrons up to few MeV kinetic energy are moderated and detected with high efficiency.

At 10 MeV 70% of neutrons gives detectable signals.

Only 10% are fully moderated to be detectable by the 3He Tubes

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi


Filter
Filter NEUCAL concept

ICATPP 2009 - Lorenzo Bonechi