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Lockout/Tagout. MODULE 20. 1910.147(a)(1) Scope. Covers servicing and maintenance of machines and equipment in which Unexpected energization or start up or Release of stored energy could cause Injury to employees Normal operation is covered in 1910 Subpart O.

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1910 147 a 1 scope
1910.147(a)(1) Scope
  • Covers servicing and maintenance of machines and equipment in which
    • Unexpected energization or start up or
    • Release of stored energy could cause
    • Injury to employees
  • Normal operation iscovered in 1910 Subpart O
1910 147 a 1 ii exemptions
1910.147(a)(1)(ii) Exemptions
  • Construction, agriculture and maritime employment;
  • Electrical Utilities;
  • Electrical equipment (covered by Subpart S)
  • Oil and gas well drilling and servicing
  • So why comply?
control of hazardous energy
Control of Hazardous Energy
  • Why use lockout/tagout?
    • Protects maintenance personnel from power being reapplied by mistake
    • Recommended by API RP 54 for electrical systems in drilling and servicing operations
    • Recognized hazard
1910 147 a 2 application
1910.147(a)(2) Application
  • Service and maintenance:
    • Employee required to remove or bypass a guard or safety device
    • Employee required to place part of body into area that would be a danger zone during machine operation cycle
1910 147 a 2 application6
1910.147(a)(2) Application
  • Exception: Minor adjustments and servicing activities during normal production if
    • Routine
    • Repetitive
    • Integral to production
  • Provided that alternative measures provide effective protection
1910 147 a 2 application7
1910.147(a)(2) Application
  • Does not apply to cord and plug connected equipment for which
    • Exposure to hazard is controlled by unplugging and
    • Plug under exclusive control of employee performing service or maintenance
1910 147 a 2 application8
1910.147(a)(2) Application
  • Does not apply to hot tap operations in transmission and distribution operations in pressurized pipelines provided that:
    • Continuity of service is essential,
    • Shutdown of system is impractical, and
    • Documented procedures and special equipment provide proven effective protection for employees
1910 147 a 3 purpose
1910.147(a)(3) Purpose
  • Establish a program and utilize procedures for affixing appropriate lockout devices or tagout devices to energy isolating devices
  • Prevent unexpected energization, start up or release of stored energy in order to prevent injury to employees
  • Training and procedural requirements for other sections’ LO/TO requirements



affected employee
Affected employee
  • Job requires employee to
    • operate or use a machine or equipment on which servicing or maintenance is being performed under lockout or tagout, or
    • work in an area in which such servicing or maintenance is being performed
authorized employee
Authorized employee
  • Locks out or tags out machines or equipment in order to perform servicing or maintenance on that machine or equipment
  • Affected employee whose duties include servicing or maintenance under this section
  • Connected to an energy source OR
  • Containing residual or stored energy
energy isolating device
Energy isolating device
  • A mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release or energy
    • Circuit breakers included
    • NOT push buttons
    • NOT selector switches
    • NOT control circuits
energy source
Energy source
  • Any source of:
    • Electrical,
    • Mechanical,
    • Hydraulic,
    • Pneumatic,
    • Chemical,
    • Thermal, or
    • Other energy

What kind of energy

did the rock have?

  • Placement of a lockout device on an energy isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, ensuring that energy isolating device and equipment being controlled cannot be operated until lockout device is removed
lockout device
Lockout device
  • Device that uses a positive means such as a lock, either key or combination type, to hold an energy isolating device in the safe position and prevent the energizing of a machine or equipment
  • Blank flanges and bolted slip blinds included
servicing and or maintenance
Servicing and/or maintenance
  • Workplace activities such as:
    • Constructing,
    • Installing,
    • Setting up,
    • Adjusting,
    • Inspecting,
    • Modifying, and
    • Maintaining and/or servicing machines or equipment
  • Placement of tagout device
    • on an energy isolating device,
    • in accordance with an established procedure,
    • to indicate that energy isolating device and equipment being controlled may not be operated until tagout device is removed
energy control program
Energy control program
  • Energy control procedures
  • Employee training
  • Periodic inspections
  • Any employee who services/maintains any equipment where unexpected energizing or stored energy release could cause injury isolates and renders it inoperative first.
1910 147 c ii general requirements
1910.147(c)(ii) General Requirements
  • If an energy isolating device is capable of being locked out, the employer's energy control program shall utilize lockout, unless the employer can demonstrate that the utilization of a tagout system will provide full employee protection
1910 147 c iii general requirements
1910.147(c)(iii) General Requirements
  • Energy isolating devices designed to accept lockout devices whenever:
    • Replacement or major repair, renovation or modification of equipment is performed or
    • New machines or equipment are installed
1910 147 c 3 full employee protection
1910.147(c)(3) Full employee protection
  • When tagout device used on energy isolation device capable of being locked out:
    • Same location as potential lockout device
    • Demonstrably equivalent program
  • May require additional safety elements
1910 147 c 4 energy control procedure
1910.147(c)(4) Energy control procedure
  • Procedures shall be developed, documented and utilized for the control of potentially hazardous energy when employees are engaged in the activities covered by this section.
    • Exception with all 8 elements listed in standard
1910 147 c 4 energy control procedure26
1910.147(c)(4) Energy control procedure
  • Outline scope, purpose, authorization, rules, techniques for control of hazardous energy, including:
    • Specific intended use of the procedure;
    • Specific steps for shutting down, isolating, blocking and securing equipment
    • Specific steps for placement, removal, transfer of lockout/tagout devices and responsibility for them
    • Specific requirements for testing equipment to verify effectiveness of lockout devices, tagout devices, and other energy control measures
1910 147 c 5 protective materials and hardware
1910.147(c)(5) Protective materials and hardware
  • Locks, tags, chains, wedges, key blocks, adapter pins, self-locking fasteners, or other hardware shall be provided by the employer for isolating, securing or blocking of equipment from energy sources
1910 147 c 5 protective materials and hardware28
1910.147(c)(5) Protective materials and hardware
  • Lockout and tagout devices must be:
    • Singularly identified
    • The only device(s) used for controlling energy
    • Not used for other purposes
    • And shall meet the following requirements:
1910 147 c 5 protective materials and hardware29
1910.147(c)(5) Protective materials and hardware
  • Capable of withstanding environment for maximum time period
  • Moisture or corrosives must not make tag deteriorate
  • Standardized:
    • Color
    • Shape
    • Size
    • Print/Format
1910 147 c 5 protective materials and hardware30
1910.147(c)(5) Protective materials and hardware
  • Lockout devices:
    • Substantial enough to prevent removal without excessive force or unusual techniques such as bolt cutters
  • Tagout devices:
    • Substantial enough to prevent inadvertent or accidental removal
    • Non-reusable attachment means
    • Attachable by hand, self-lockable
    • At least equivalent to nylon cable tie
1910 147 c 5 protective materials and hardware31
1910.147(c)(5) Protective materials and hardware
  • Lockout and tagout devices indicate identity of employee applying devices
1910 147 c 6 periodic inspection
1910.147(c)(6) Periodic Inspection
  • Energy control procedure inspected at least annually:
    • By authorized employee not using the procedure being inspected
    • Correct any deviations
    • Review employee responsibilities with:
      • each authorized employee – lockout
      • each affected or authorized employee – tagout
1910 147 c 7 training and communication
1910.147 (c)(7) Training and communication
  • Ensure employees understand purpose and function of energy control program
  • Ensure employees acquire skills required for safe application, usage, removal of energy controls
employee training requirements
Employee Training Requirements
  • Authorized employee:
    • Recognition of hazardous energy sources
    • Type and amount of energy in workplace
    • Methods and means for energy isolation
  • Affected employee:
    • Purpose and use of procedure
  • Other employees in area:
    • Procedure and prohibition on restarting
employee training requirements for tagout
Employee Training Requirements for Tagout
  • Train on limitations of tags:
    • Warning devices do not provide physical restraint that a lock would
    • Tag not to be removed without owner’s authorization, bypassed, ignored, defeated
    • Must be legible / understandable to work
    • Must withstand environmental conditions
    • False sense of security
    • Attach securely: avoid accidental removal
employee retraining
Employee Retraining
  • For all authorized or affected employees when:
    • Job assignment changes
    • Equipment or processes present new hazard
    • Energy control procedure changes
    • Knowledge / use of program is inadequate
  • Certify employee training up to date
1910 147 c 8 energy isolation
1910.147(c)(8) Energy Isolation
  • Only the authorized employees performing the servicing or maintenance may apply lockout/tagout
1910 147 c 9 notification of employees
1910.147(c)(9) Notification of Employees
  • Affected employees must be notified
    • By employer or authorized employee
    • Of application and removal of lockout and tagout devices
    • Before controls are applied
    • After controls are removed
order of operation for application of control
Order of Operation for Application of Control
  • Preparation for shutdown
  • Equipment shutdown – orderly
  • Equipment isolation
  • Lockout or tagout device application
  • Stored energy relieved; continue while reaccumulating
  • Verification of isolation
    • Test and return to “off” position
1910 147 e release from lockout
1910.147(e) Release from Lockout
  • Before lockout or tagout devices removed and energy restored, ensure:
  • Machine or equipment:
    • Inspect area; remove nonessential items
    • Ensure equipment components intact
  • Employees:
    • Ensure all employees safe or removed
    • Before restart, notify affected employees of removal
1910 147 e release from lockout43
1910.147(e) Release from Lockout
  • Each lockout/tagout device removed by employee who applied the device
    • If not available, removed under employer direction
    • Specific procedures and training from energy control program must be in use!
      • Verify that applying employee is not at facility
      • Make all reasonable efforts to contact/notify
      • Ensure authorized employee knows of removal before resuming work at facility
1910 147 f 1 testing or positioning
1910.147(f)(1) Testing or Positioning
  • Temporary removal of lockout/tagout devices for testing/positioning:
    • Clear tools and materials
    • Remove employees from equipment area
    • Remove lockout/tagout devices (as in (e))
    • Energize and test or position
    • Deenergize systems and reapply energy control measures to continue servicing
1910 147 f 2 outside personnel
1910.147(f)(2) Outside Personnel
  • Contractors and other outside personnel:
    • On-site employer and outside employer inform each other of lockout/tagout procedures
    • On-site employer complies with outside employer’s energy control program
1910 147 f 3 group lockout or tagout
1910.147(f)(3) Group Lockout or Tagout
  • Procedure must provide protection equivalent to personal lockout/tagout device
  • Primary responsibility is vested in an authorized employee for a set number of employees working under the protection of a group lockout or tagout device (such as an operations lock);
1910 147 f 3 group lockout or tagout48
1910.147(f)(3) Group Lockout or Tagout
  • When more than one crew, craft, department, etc. is involved:
    • Designated authorized employee takes lockout/tagout control responsibility
    • Coordinates affected work forces
    • Ensures continuity of protection
1910 147 f 3 group lockout or tagout49
1910.147(f)(3) Group Lockout or Tagout
  • Each authorized employee affixes personal lockout/tagout device to group lockout device when beginning work
  • Each removes personal device when stopping work on this equipment
1910 147 f 4 shift or personnel changes
1910.147(f)(4) Shift or Personnel Changes
  • Specific procedures in energy control plan
  • Ensure continuity of lockout/tagout protection
  • Orderly transfer of lockout/tagout device protection between shifts
  • Minimize exposure to hazards from unexpected energization or release