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History of aerosol measurements from space - where do we go from here? Yoram Kaufman. Dust, smoke, sea salt or pollution particles suspended in the air - Why aerosols? - climate, air quality - From hand held camera on Vostok 6 in 1963 to multi-spectral, polarization and lidars

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History of aerosol measurements from space - where do we go from here? Yoram Kaufman


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    1. History of aerosol measurements from space - where do we go from here? Yoram Kaufman • Dust, smoke, sea salt or pollution particles suspended in the air • - Why aerosols? - climate, air quality • - From hand held camera on Vostok 6 in 1963 to multi-spectral, polarization and lidars • - Exponential rate of publications • 20 year record on some satellites • GSFC contribution: AVHRR, TOMS, MODIS, GLASS… Glory…. • Maturity: Review papers in Science and Nature • inclusion in air quality and climate models

    2. Why aerosol ? - climate: Aerosol lifetime - 1 week Greenhouse gases lifetime 10-100 years The stronger the aerosol effect is today the stronger the greenhouse effect will emerge in the future (Andreae, Nature2005) Hansen & Sato, 2001 1.8±1 W/m2 CoolingWarming 2.6±0.3 W/m2

    3. Sept 9 Sept 10 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 15.5 40.5 65.5 150.5 Aerosol Optical Depth Cloud Optical Thickness PM2.5 (ug/m3) Operational use of satellites to monitoring air pollution No EPA sites MODIS fills in Sept 11 Sept 12

    4. “The aerosol roadmap”

    5. Quick history of aerosol research 2000s: aerosol climatology, aerosol-cloud interaction, effect on the hydrological cycle, 20yr record 2004: OMI 2003: GLAS 2002: GLI 1999: MODIS, MISR 1990s: Satellites designed for aerosol research: POLDER, ATSR, MODIS, MISR 1996-2004: POLDER 1991: ATSR 1980s: Burst in aerosol research: transport, effect on climate; stratospheric aerosol, aerosol over land 1984: Earth Radiation budget satellites 1978-1981: AVHRR, TOMS SAGE, 1976: dust-gr/m2 - Landsat 1975: GOES-VISSR 1972: ATS III dust transport 1972: Landsat, 1967: Sekera: aerosol from satellites polarization meas. 1967: ATS III 1965: stratospheric aerosol profiles from Vostok 6 - Rosenberg and Tereshkova 1963: Vostok 6

    6. 1980s Burst in aerosol research: transport, effect on climate; stratospheric aerosol, aerosol over land: most cited: Stratospheric aerosol MCCORMICK MP, HAMILL P, PEPIN TJ, et al. SATELLITE STUDIES OF THE STRATOSPHERIC AEROSOL BULL AMER MET SOC 1979 Cited:158 RUSSELL PB, SWISSLER TJ, MCCORMICK MP, et al. SATELLITE AND CORRELATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF THE STRATOSPHERIC AEROSOL .1. AN OPTICAL-MODEL FOR DATA CONVERSIONS J ATMOSPH SCI 1981 Cited:69 RUSSELL PB, MCCORMICK MP, SWISSLER TJ, et al. SATELLITE AND CORRELATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF THE STRATOSPHERIC AEROSOL .2. COMPARISON OF MEASUREMENTS MADE BY SAM-II, DUSTSONDES AND AN AIRBORNE LIDAR J ATMOSPH SCI 1981 Cited:62 Tropospheric aerosol FRASER RS, KAUFMAN YJ, MAHONEY RL SATELLITE MEASUREMENTS OF AEROSOL MASS AND TRANSPORT ATMOS ENVIRON 1984 Cited:71 KAUFMAN YJ SATELLITE SENSING OF AEROSOL ABSORPTION  JGR 1987 Cited:43 NORTON CC, MOSHER FR, HINTON B, et al. A MODEL FOR CALCULATING DESERT AEROSOL TURBIDITY OVER THE OCEANS FROM GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE DATA J APPL METEOR 1980 Cited:43 GOES AVHRR GOES

    7. BAMS 1979, Cited:158 Cited:181

    8. 1990s: Stratospheric aerosol, AVHRR, TOMS, SeaWifs and preparation for POLDER, MODIS and MISR (most cited) Herman JR, Bhartia PK, Torres O, et al. Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosols from Nimbus 7/TOMS data  JGR 1997 (314) Husar RB, Prospero JM, Stowe LL Characterization of tropospheric aerosols over the oceans with the NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer optical thickness operational product  JGR 1997 (286) DESCHAMPS PY, BREON FM, LEROY M, et al. THE POLDER MISSION - INSTRUMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVES  IEEE TGRS 1994 (244) MCCORMICK MP, VEIGA RE SAGE-II MEASUREMENTS OF EARLY PINATUBO AEROSOLS  GRL, 1992 (238) GORDON HR, WANG MH RETRIEVAL OF WATER-LEAVING RADIANCE AND AEROSOL OPTICAL-THICKNESS OVER THE OCEANS WITH SEAWIFS - A PRELIMINARY ALGORITHM  APPL OPT, 1994 (195) KING MD, KAUFMAN YJ, MENZEL WP, et al.REMOTE-SENSING OF CLOUD, AEROSOL, AND WATER-VAPOR PROPERTIES FROM MODIS  IEEE TGRS 1992 (194) Tanre D, Kaufman YJ, Herman M, et al .Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances  JGR 1997 (157) TOMS AVHRR POLDER SAGE SeaWifs ***** MODIS

    9. Reviews, inclusion in field experiments, transport models and start of long term climatology 2000s Field experiments including surface aircraft and satellite: Ramanathan V, Crutzen PJ, Lelieveld J, et al. Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze  JGR 2001 (180) Reviews Ramanathan V, Crutzen PJ, Kiehl JT, et al. Atmosphere - Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle SCIENCE 2001 (194) Kaufman YJ, Tanre D, Boucher O A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system  NATURE 2002 (145) Results in impact journals Satheesh SK, Ramanathan V Large differences in tropical aerosol forcing at the top of the atmosphere and Earth's surface  NATURE 2000 (127) Use to develop aerosol transport models Ginoux P, Chin M, Tegen I, et al. Sources and distributions of dust aerosols simulated with the GOCART model  JGR 2001 (115) Long term climatology Torres O, Bhartia PK, Herman JR, et al. A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurements  J ATMOS SCIE 59: 2002 (81) Prospero JM, Ginoux P, Torres O, et al. Environmental characterization of global sources of atmospheric soil dust identified with the TOMS absorbing aerosol product  REVIEWS OF GEOPH 2002 (73)

    10. Long-term record on aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations (Torres et al, JAS, 2002) AOT India Massie et al., JGR, 2004 JQSRT 2004

    11. AERONET - a grounded satellite Holben BN, Eck TF, Slutsker I, et al. AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization  REM SENS ENVIRON, 1998 Cited:486 Banizoumbou, Niger) Dubovik O, Holben B, Eck TF, et al. Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations  J ATMOS SCIE 2002 Cited:200

    12. Population <--> pollution Kaufman, Tanré, Boucher, Nature 2002 145 Girolamo et al GRL 2005 Polder 1996 C. Robles Gonzales2005 AOT ATSR 1999 Ångström MISR 2001-2004 MODIS 2001 MODIS 2002 MODIS 2003 http://g0dup05u.ecs.nasa.gov/Giovanni/

    13. Dust transport and deposition observed from the Terra-MODIS space observations, Kaufman, et al., J. Geophys. Res 2005 230±80 tg of dust left Africa. - 120±40 tg deposited in the Atlantic - 40±15 tg reach the Amazon Basin - 70±25 tg arrive to the Caribbean. - 30±10 tg return to Africa and Europe

    14. Satellite derivation of the anthropogenic component MODIS 0.033 GOCART 0.030 LMDZ 0.032 SPRINTAS 0.036 Kaufman, Boucher, Tanre, Chin, Remer & Takemura, GRL, 2005

    15. Aerosol effect on cloud cover, covered by Science, from AVHRR (1987) to MODIS (2004) Science 1987 Koren, et al., Biomass Burning Aerosol Inhibition of Cloud Formation over the Amazon Science, 2004. (89) (30) Amazon

    16. WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE? Long term data series Lidars, wide spectral polarimeters Multi-satellite analysis <--> transport and climate models 2010 Launch and design of aerosol sensors Extensive use of satellites not designed for trop. aerosol Climate change Hydrology Radiation First applications Chemistry Clouds Aerosols precipitation First measurements Surface