Seafarers and the Environment. Connecting on MARPOL Carleen Lyden-Kluss NAMEPA. Shipping’s Role in Global Trade.
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Seafarers and the Environment Connecting on MARPOL Carleen Lyden-Kluss NAMEPA
Shipping’s Role in Global Trade • Our marine transportation system delivers more than 90% of all global trade. In 2008, for example, it is estimated that the industry transported over 7.7 thousand million tonnes of cargo, equivalent to a total volume of world trade by sea of over 32 thousand billion tonne-miles. In 2011, the value of the cargo exceeded $31,495.5 billion.
Shipping’s Size • There are over 50,000 merchant ships trading internationally, transporting every kind of cargo. The world fleet is registered in over 150 nations, and manned by over a million seafarers of virtually every nationality.
Shipping is Economical • Between 2000 and 2007, the value of world trade grew 12%, while total freight costs during this period increased by around half this figure, demonstrating the falling unit costs of transportation, including those of ocean freight. Total freight costs in world trade still represent, on average, less than 6% of the import value (or shelf price) of consumer goods.
Safety at Sea • Shipping is the safest form of commercial transport. Perhaps uniquely amongst industries involving physical risk, commitment to safety has long pervaded virtually all deep sea shipping operations. Shipping was amongst the very first industries to adopt widely implemented international safety standards.
Shipping is Environmentally Efficient • Sea transport is one of the least environmentally damaging modes of transport and, when compared with land based industry, is a comparatively minor contributor to marine pollution from human activities. • As land-based industries become a smaller source, shipping’s contribution becomes proportionately larger.
But look at how human intervention, in many forms, has impacted marine environments
MARPOL Regulations • The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) is the main international convention covering prevention of pollution of the marine environment by ships from operational or accidental causes. • The Convention includes regulations aimed at preventing and minimizing pollution from ships - both accidental pollution and that from routine operations - and currently includes six technical Annexes. Special Areas with strict controls on operational discharges are included in most Annexes.
Refresher • Annex I - Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil • Annex II - Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk • Annex III - Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances Carried by Sea in Packaged Form
Refresher (continued) • Annex IV - Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships • Annex V - Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships • Annex VI - Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships
Contributions of Seafarers • “Seafarers are the lubricant without which the engine of trade would simply grind to a halt… Seafarers are the unsung heroes of an unsung industry,” said Efthimios Mitropoulos, secretary general of the International Maritime Organization.
Fundamentals about Seafarers • Shipping employs over 1.5 Million Seafarers
Protection of Seafarers • International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974 • International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping (STCW) for Seafarers, 1978 • Maritime Labor Convention (2006)- coming into force August 20, 2013
Why Seafarers Need Marine Environment Education • Most, if not all, shipping companies and crewing organizations have compliance training programs. • It well known that people need to be presented information at least 6 times before assimilating the material • NAMEPA works with seafarers to augment their existing knowledge about marine environment protection.
Criminalization of Seafarers • Over the past two decades, there has been a growing trend of criminalization of seafarers, mostly for environmental incidents, which has been condemned by the shipping industry and all those who support it for its negative effect on the individual seafarer, on the shipping industry, and ultimately, on the environment. • The industry is quick to acknowledge that criminal liability is an appropriate response for intentional and reckless acts of pollution. However, the shifting of responsibility onto the individuals who just happen to be on the scene challenges understanding in many cases.
MARPOL Annex 1 Violations • Accidental discharges of oil are not violations of MARPOL. These are defined to be discharges resulting from damage to a ship or its equipment, so long as all reasonable precautions are taken to prevent or minimize the discharge and so long as there is no intent or recklessness to cause damage. • Prosecutions relate to attempts to lie or deceive authorities.
Guidance to Seafarers • It is important for seafarers to do all they can to avoid causing pollution of the marine environment. Sometimes commercial pressures put seafarers in difficult situations and although the company may not instruct the crew to take shortcuts, this may be the only way to keep to deadlines. In the current climate, any action that could cause damage to the environment, whether intentional or by accident, can lead to seafarers taking the blame and being treated as criminals- ITF
2011 Statistics • “The Department of Justice will continue to prosecute shipping companies who break the laws that protect our oceans.” -Assist. Attorney General Moreno • 8 main criminal prosecutions • Companies = 11 • Individuals= 4 • $9 million • 6 months in prison; dozens detained in motels • OWS cases, Ports & Waterways Safety Act, Ballast Water Reporting, Garbage Record Books • Administrative banning of a ship
NAMEPA’s Goals • Save our Seas • Educate seafarers about marine environment protection • Keep seafarers in their jobs, not in jail!
Case Study: USCG MOU • MOU signed on January 10, 2012 to partner on marine environment education • Based on trust developed over years of collaboration • Outcome: 110,000 marine debris brochures and 10,000 posters being distributed by the USCG along with the development of a children’s education module on marine debris • Partners in children’s drawing contest • NAMEPA is now discussing a MOU with NOAA
Background: NAMEPA • Responding to The Environmental Imperative • Demonstrating maritime’s commitment to protecting the marine environment • Reaching out to seafarers, port communities and students • Engages maritime businesses, government and the public to “Save our Seas” by promoting sound environmental practices • Promoting the maritime industry
NAMEPA • Industry led initiative with over 100 shipping companies/academies, universities, harbor schools/individuals members • Activities (NMD, WMD, environmental crimes, marine debris, response simulations, seminars, wreck waste removal programs international coastal cleanup, MARPOL/marine science program) • Outreach to recreational boaters and students
NAMEPA Activities • Seafarers: • Through its relationship with the North American Maritime Ministry Association (NAMMA), we distributed over 12,000 copies of the American Club’s environmental crimes poster • Again, through NAMMA, we distributed 2500 copies of NAMEPA’s Marine Debris poster to ships calling on North American ports • Developed a MARPOL/Marine Science seafarer training program which will be disseminated throughout ports in North America including the Caribbean • Provide environmental information in seafarer centers throughout North America
NAMEPA Activities cont.. • Port Communities • NAMEPA hosts industry seminars and conferences with regional orientation to suit the local community’s interests/concerns. These seminars, entitled “Environmental Intelligence in Shipping” present panels composed of industry, regulatory and environmental interests to bring a complete discussion to the table. EIS seminars to date have occurred in San Francisco, Houston, New York, Washington DC, Long Beach, Seattle, New Orleans and Anchorage. • NAMEPA has hosted both the National Maritime Day and World Maritime Day for eight years. These large events address the broader environmental and safety interests of the maritime community. • NAMEPA has been a sponsor of Green Shipping, Green Ports, Sustainable Shipping, and other events that share our commitment to “Save our Seas”. • NAMEPA contributed its marine debris poster to a country-wide cleanup effort in Grenada • NAMEPA has participated in 5 international beach clean ups.
NAMEPA Activities cont.. • Students • NAMEPA sponsors an annual children’s drawing contest featuring a theme of environmental protection (marine debris, save our seas, the seafarer, etc). This year’s contest reached over 2,500,000 students • NAMEPA is developing a K-12 marine debris education program with NOAA and Sea Research Foundation • NAMEPA is sponsoring a science contest amongst Harbor Schools, maritime academies, and universities around marine environment protection • NAMEPA is sponsoring a cadet award for commitment to marine environment protection
It is a curious situation that the sea, from which life first arose, should now be threatened by the activities of one form of that life. But the sea, though changed in a sinister way, will continue to exist: the threat is rather to life itself. .. (Rachel Carson)