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Operating Systems I. Managing Your Disks. Primary Learning Objective. Execute Routine Disk Management Techniques. Specific Learning Objectives. Identify and define the terms associated with disk management Identify and rename a disk Determine the size and free space available on a disk.

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operating systems i

Operating Systems I

Managing Your Disks

primary learning objective
Primary Learning Objective

Execute Routine Disk Management Techniques

specific learning objectives
Specific Learning Objectives
  • Identify and define the terms associated with disk management
  • Identify and rename a disk
  • Determine the size and free space available on a disk.
  • Format a disk using the GUI and FORMAT command
  • Copy a floppy disk using the GUI and DISKCOPY command
specific learning objectives1
Specific Learning Objectives
  • Describe disk maintenance processes such as Defrag, Scandisk, Disk Cleanup, and Scheduling Utilities
  • Describe the backup process on an individual computer
  • Use the VOL, Label, XCOPY, and DIR commands for disk management

Floppy Disk Storage

A floppy disk is a round piece of flexible mylar plastic covered with a thin layer of magnetic oxide.

The platters, the actual disks inside the hard drive that store the magnetized data, have traditionally been made of a light aluminum alloy and coated with a magnetizable ferrite compound


Floppy Disk Storage

3.5” Floppy disk


indicator hole



Drive hub


access cover


Before the data is stored, particles are randomly scattered

The read-write head

Magnetizing the particles


One sector on a track holds 512 bytes of data.

The tracks on a

disk are divided

into wedge-shaped


  • One or more sectors used by an operating system as the minimum storage space for a file or a part of a file when it allocates storage space on a drive to a file.
  • Also call an allocation unit.
drive properties
Drive Properties
  • How do you access a drive’s properties?
  • The properties dialog box has several functions besides giving us the name, size, and amount of free space. Some include:
    • Access disk maintenance tools
    • Provide hardware information and troubleshooting
    • Enable sharing and security
disk information in cli
Disk Information in CLI
  • VOL – Displays the disk volume label and serial number, if they exist.
  • Label – Creates, changes, or deletes the volume label of a disk.
  • DIR – Displays the number of files and directories in the current directory and the amount of free space on the drive.
  • CHKDSK - Checks a disk and displays a status report.
format a disk
Format a Disk
  • Before use a disk must be formatted so data can be saved on it.
  • Formatting options include:
    • Quick(Erases all information from the disk, but doesn't scan the disk for damaged areas. Only works on disks that have previously been formatted.)
    • Enable Compression(only on NTFS drives)
    • Create an MS-DOS startup disk
  • In CLI, use FORMAT (/s makes a bootable disk and /Q is for a quick format)
copy a floppy disk
Copy a Floppy Disk
  • Used to make an exact copy of the source floppy disk
  • The disks must be the same type and density
  • All information on the destination floppy will be deleted.
  • Open MY Computer or Windows Explorer and right-click on the floppy drive and selct Copy Disk
  • In CLI, use the DISKCOPY command


disk maintenance
Disk Maintenance
  • Computers require routing maintenance to keep them running at peak performance and to correct/prevent problems.
  • Some of these tasks include defragmenting, fixing errors on your hard disk, and freeing up space on your hard disk and backing up and restoring information on the hard disk.
  • You must be logged on as the computer’s administrator to complete these tasks.
disk defragmenter
Disk Defragmenter
  • Fragmentation occurs when the files on a disk are divided into pieces scattered around the disk. It occurs naturally when you modifying files frequently.
  • Where do you find the defrag tool?
  • Open My Computer/Explorer, right-click on a drive, select Properties, click the Tools tab, and click Defragment Now button. System Tools
  • In CLI, type DEFRAG
disk defragmenter do s and don t s
Disk Defragmenter Do’s and Don’t’s
  • The process can take up to several hours
  • Touching Windows will cause Disk Defragmenter to start over.
  • Run Error-checking first since you can’t defrag a disk containing errors
  • In XP, it optimizes your disk by placing the programs you use most often a the beginning of the hard drive.
repairing disk errors
Repairing Disk Errors
  • Normal wear and tear causes errors to appear on your hard drive which affects performance
  • Error-checking, a hard drive repair program, can diagnose and easily fix most of the damage
  • To use: Tools tab of Properties or System Tools
  • There are two types of tests:
    • “Automatically fix errors”
    • “Scan for and attempt recovery of bad sectors”
freeing up space
Freeing Up Space
  • Over time Windows creates unnecessary files that take up space. See Table 5-1 on page 147
  • Open My Computer/Explorer, right-click on a drive, select Properties, click the General tab, and click Disk Cleanup button. System Tools
  • Other options to free up space:
    • Remove unnecessary programs
    • Remove unnecessary Windows components
  • Common causes for loss of data include user errors, hardware/software failure, and damage by viruses
  • A backup is a copy of data or key OS files
  • At the user level you can backup or restore using the built-in backup utility
  • Click the Start button and select All Programs > Accessories > System Tools > Backup
  • It uses a wizard to help you select files for backup
scheduling tasks
Scheduling Tasks
  • Windows can automatically perform maintenance programs such as Error-checking or Disk Cleanup on a regular basis for you
  • Click the Start button and select All Programs > Accessories > System Tools > Scheduled Tasks
  • Select the program to be schedule, how often to run it, and then specify when it is to run
  • Disk Nomenclature
  • Drive Properties
  • Formatting
  • Diskcopy
  • Defrag
  • Scandisk
  • Disk Cleanup
  • Backup
  • Scheduling Tasks

Homework Assignment

  • Reading
    • Windows XP Textbook – pp 137-149
    • CLI Textbook - pp. 34-39, pp114-116
  • Lab Exercise 9: Perform Routine Disk Management
  • Due Date: A Week from Next Tuesday