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“LINGUE IN PIAZZA” Ref. 225857-CP-1-2005-1-IT-LINGUA-L1 . . Autonomy in language learning. Autonomous learning means:. Control over the learning process Acquiring learning strategies

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autonomous learning means
Autonomous learning means:
  • Control over the learning process
  • Acquiring learning strategies
  • Acquiring ways to use these strategies without the help of a teacher (Thomson -1996 – we are born independent students but when we learn a language , autonomousn learning becomes difficult and we prefer the direction of a teacher)
  • More control over objectives
  • More control over the ways in which we learn
autonomous learning
Autonomous learning
  • Offers learners the freedom to take decisions on:- content

- organization

- pace of study

an autonomous learner is
An autonomous learner is:
  • Methodical and disciplined
  • Logical and analytical
  • reflective
  • flexible
  • Responsible and persistent
  • Creative and willing to take risks
  • confident
  • Aware of the learning process
  • Able to assess and criticise
before starting
Before starting
  • I must accept responsibilty for my studies
  • I must understand the aims of my studies
  • I must know my level of English
  • I must identify my immediate aims
  • I must plan my learning programme. The use of a diary is useful. When the student writes a learning plan, the level of involvement increases – Martyn 1994
  • I must identify learning problems
  • I must be able to select
  • I must understand the learning process
  • I must measure my progress from time to time
the autonomous student doesn t need to be alone
The autonomous student doesn’t need to be alone!
  • Autonomous learning does not mean isolated learning. Several studies have shown that many aspects of learning are best done with other students
  • Study groups
  • Tandem
  • chat
why is english so difficult
Why is English so difficult?
  • There are so many words! There are more words in English than in any other language in the world. English is a Germanic language but with the Norman conquest, many new words entered the language from French and Latin. For example, the Anglo-Saxons had two words for cooking - cook andbake but the French who were perhaps better cooks – introduced many more words – fry, grill, roast.
  • In the Renaissance, the English language was considered to be inferior so many words were introduced from French, Italian and Spanish. For this reason, we often have two or more words when one would be enough!
  • Freedom (Anglo-Saxon) liberty (French)
  • Graveyard (Anglo-Saxon) cemetery (French)
  • Heaven (Anglo-Saxon) paradise (French)
  • Read ‘about the language’ www.lingueinpiazza.it
why is english so difficult8
Why is English so difficult?
  • The spoken word often does not reflect the written version
  • The English and Americans eat their words!
  • The pronunciation is difficult
  • It is not a logical language and there are many exceptions to the rules
but there are some advantages
But there are some advantages!
  • The structure of English is quite simple. There are no cases or declinations – the relationship of words depends on word order. Nouns do not have a gender and the adjectives do not change
  • Considering the ubiquity of the English language, it is quite easy to find ways to learn it autonomously – 70% of Internet sites are in English for example and many world famous musicians are English or American
why don t you write english as you speak it
Why don’t you write English as you speak it?
  • The main reasons date back to the Middle Ages when the written language was more or less fixed. There are various different dialects in Britain and in the 13° century, everyone wrote in his own dialect. Then the London dialect became the official written language. The dialect of London changed over the centuries but the written version remained the same. Therefore we still have the written language of seven centuries ago though the spoken language has changed. For example, the pronunciation of vowels has changed and many consonants are no longer pronounced in certain words
  • (Wednesday, know, gnome, scientist)
slide11
Another problem goes back to the Norman conquest. The Norman scribes wrote English according to French writing conventions. For example, the word ‘country’ was pronounced ‘cuntri’ by the Anglo-Saxons but the French wrote ‘ou’ for the ‘u’ sound
slide12
In the eigthteenth century, scholars tried to improve the language by inserting consonants to indicate the Latin origin of the word. No English person has ever pronounced the ‘s’ in the word ‘island’ – it was put in to indicate the Latin root – as in castle, debt, doubt, receipt, tomb
so how cani learn to pronounce english well
So how canI learn to pronounce English well?
  • There aren’t any rules for English pronunciation! Some words that contain sounds that look similar are pronounced very differently (good, food, blood) and otheres that look completely different are pronounced in the same way (right, write)
  • Don’t despair. You need to learn the phonetics – symbols that represent sounds and things will seem easier.
vowel sounds
Vowel sounds
  • i: see, sea, be
  • I Italy, rich, sit
  • U put, book, foot
  • U: food, rude, shoe, two, you, flew
  • e ten, hen, pen, men
  • Λ cup, love, bus
  • Æ hat, apple, fat
  • a: car, father, party
  • З: girl, world, pearl, Thursday
  • Ɔ: four, door, daughter, raw, more
  • ∂ ago, America, colour, mother
  • Ŋ orange, Australia, honour
slide15
1. i: bead
  • 2. I bid
  • 3. U bud (N. English)
  • 4. U: booed
  • 5. e bed
  • 6. Λ bud
  • 7. Æ bad
  • 8. a: bard
  • 9. З: bird
  • 10. Ɔ: bored
  • 11. ∂ cupboard
  • 12. Ŋ body
  • Which vowel do these words contain? EARTH HARD LORD

LOVE LEAVE WHO AUSTRIA SHIP RICH REACH APPLE THURSDAY BREAD CALL

dipthongs
DIPTHONGS
  • I ∂ here, near, fear
  • eI late, hate, (the rain in Spain falls mainly on the plain)
  • u∂pure, sure
  • ƆItoy, boy
  • eahair, fair, air
  • aI five, dive
  • au how now brown cow
  • ∂u home, window, hello
slide17
You say yes, I say no You say stop and I say go, go, go Oh, no You say goodbye and I say hello Hello, hello I don't know why you say goodbye I say hello Hello, hello I don't know why you say goodbye I say hello I say high, you say low You say why, and I say I don't know Oh, no You say goodbye and I say hello Hello, hello I don't know why you say goodbye I say hello Hello, hello I don't know why you say goodbye I say hello Why, why, why, why, why, why Do you say good bye Goodbye, bye, bye, bye, bye Oh, no You say goodbye and I say hello Hello, hello I don't know why you say goodbye I say hello Hello, hello I don't know why you say goodbye I say hello hello, hello I don't know why you say goodbye I say hello Hello
consonants
CONSONANTS
  • p pen, pill
  • b bar, bad
  • t tea, take
  • d do did
  • tƒ cheese, choose
  • dz June January
  • k cat, cream
  • g good
  • f fall
  • v voice
  • θ thin, north
  • ð those, these
  • s so, see
  • z rose shoes
slide19
she. Shoes
  • (she sells sea shells on the sea shore and the shells she sells are sea-shells)
  • З pleasure, treasure
  • m
  • n
  • ŋ thing, sing
  • H
  • l
  • r
  • w
  • Europe, yes
slide20
Yesterday, all my troubles seemed so far awayNow it looks as thought they're here to stayOh I believe in yesterday
  • Suddenly, I'm not half the man I used to beThere's a shadow hanging over meOh yesterday, came suddenly
  • Why she, had to goI don't know she wouldn't sayI said, something wrongNow I long for yesterday
  • Yesterday, love was such an easy game to playNow I need a place to hide awayOh I believe in yesterday.
  • Why she, had to go I don't knowShe wouldn't sayI said, something wrongNow I long for yesterday
  • Yesterday, love was such an easy game to playNow I need a place to hide awayOh I believe in yesterday.
go onto the site www yourdictionary com and find the pronunciation for these words
Go onto the site www.yourDictionary.comand find the pronunciation for these words
  • Reign colonel
  • Sword appalling
  • Malignant doubt
  • Knight exhausting
  • Amazing scientist
  • Oregano birthday
  • Arrangement cupboard
  • Mountain further
test your english first you must find your level of english do a test on a website
Test your English First you must find your level of English – do a test on a website
  • www.learn4good.com (40 questions to establish your level – quite easy)
  • www.englishlearner.com (you already need to know your level)
  • www.languagesystems.com (a bit difficult)
  • www.learnenglish.org (very difficult)
study groups
Study groups
  • Find two or three people in the group of your level (go round the class asking ‘what’s your level of English?)
  • Discuss why you want to learn English
  • What are the difficulties in your opinion?
  • How can you overcome these difficulties?
  • Do you know your learning style? Do you have a good memory? Do you have to write down words to learn them?
in your groups of two or three try to write a learning plan
In your groups of two or three, try to write a learning plan
  • For example:
  • Understand better the pronuncation
  • Buy a good dictionary
  • Do exercises on verbs
  • Learn irregular past verbs
  • Learn some useful expressions