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Lecture 8 and 9

Lymphomas; Multiple Myeloma, Plasma cell disorders; Lipid storage disease and Histiocytosis


o bjectives

List distinguishing features for nodular lymphocyte predominant, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte rich, lymphocyte depletion and nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma

List distinguishing features for the four stages of Hodgkin lymphoma

Describe classification criteria, differential diagnosis, prognosis and treatment for Hodgkin and non Hodgkin lymphomas

Describe and compare multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy

Describe the workup of patients with plasma cell dyscrasia

Define and describe amyloidosis

Name and describe enzyme deficiencies seen in Gaucher’s disease, Niemann-Pick, and Tay-Sachs disease

Describe clinical features and laboratory findings of Mucopolysaccharidoses and sea-blue histiocyte syndrome

lymphomas introduction
Lymphomas - Introduction

Malignant lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of diseases

From cells of the lymphoid tissue

  • Lymphocytes
  • Histiocytes
  • Reticulum cells

Two categories

  • Hodgkin disease/ Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Lymphocytic lymphoma/non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs)
introduction to the lymphomas
Introduction to the lymphomas

Difficulties involved in lymphoma diagnosis due to the many subcategories

Need to make distinction between:

  • Benign and malignant lymphoid proliferations
  • Hodgkin versus non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Subcategories of each type of lymphoma

Definitive diagnosis may not be possible

introduction to hodgkin lymphoma
Introduction to Hodgkin Lymphoma

First described by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832

Samuel Wilks in 1865 applied the term Hodgkin disease

In 1898 Sternberg and in 1902 Reed described the histological features of Hodgkin disease, the unusual cell that is characteristic of Hodgkin disease

= Reed-Sternberg cell

Two distinct clinical and pathological disease

  • Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL)
  • Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL)
etiology and pathogenesis
Etiology and pathogenesis

Possible viral etiology

  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
    • EBV nucleic acids demonstrated in 80% of all cases of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL)
    • EBV antigens detected in 50% of the cases
  • CMV, Herpesvirus 6 also implicated
  • Mechanism is unclear
  • Possibly a preceding immunosuppression causing an abnormal immune response to the infections

HL – malignant clonal proliferation

  • A small percentage of Reed-Sternberg cells and its variants
  • A larger percent of B cells

Reed-Sternberg cell – cytological hallmark of HL

  • Large cell ( up to 45 µm ) with abundant acidophilic cytoplasm
  • Multinucleated or polylobed nucleus
  • Gigantic, inclusion like nucleoli
  • Halo effect around the nucleoli
  • Not necessarily diagnostic because seen in a variety of other conditions
  • Helpful in suggesting the possibility of HL or a subclassification of HL

Reed-Sternberg cells in the proper cellular, stromal and clinical setting in conjunction with immunophenotyping → diagnosis of HL

nodular lymphocyte predominant hl
Nodular lymphocyte predominant HL
  • 5% of cases
  • Pathologically and clinically distinct from HL
  • Characterized by a nodular, and/or a diffuse proliferation of scattered large neoplastic cells knownas L&H , popcorn cell, or lymphocyte predominant cells (LP cells)
    • L&H = lymphocyte histiocyte RS variant
    • Popcorn cells are Reed Sternberg variants
  • Most of the lymphocytes found in the lymph nodes are normal (not cancerous)
nodular lymphocyte predominant hl1
Nodular lymphocyte predominant HL
  • Occurs at any age with a peak incidence at 40yrs
  • Cervical and axillary lymph nodes are most frequently involved
  • Presents as an early stage disease; has slow progression and excellent outcome with standard therapy
  • Recurrence is common and occurs in 21% of cases
  • The immunophenotype of the L&H cells is distinct from the cells of the classic Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • Unlike classical Hodgkin Lymphoma, the LP cells show immunoreactivity with CD45 and CD20 and no staining with CD30 or CD15
  • There is consistent staining with CD20, CD22, and CD79a
nodular lymphocyte predominant hl2
Nodular lymphocyte predominant HL
  • Slightly higher incidence in the U.S. among blacks than whites, and a lower incidence among Asians
  • 3:1 male predominance
  • Shows a propensity toward peripheral (neck and/or axilla)
  • Nodal spread is dis-contiguous, compared with the contiguous nodal spread of classical HL.
  • In 50%–60% of NLPHL cases, the time between the initial presentation of lymphadenopathy and the diagnosis of NLPHL is 6–12 months or longer

nodular lymphocyte predominant hl3
Nodular lymphocyte predominant HL
  • Prognosis is good - 90-100% remission rate with primary therapy
  • Relapse seen in 10-15% of patients and occurs on average 3-6 years after diagnosis
  • Overall 10 year survival rates are >90% in limited stage disease
classic hodgkin lymphoma
Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma

Defined by the observation of classic Reed-Sternberg cells in the appropriate cellular and stromal background

Background of the lesion determines the subclassification of CHL:

Nodular sclerosis HL

  • Most common subtype of HL; 60-80% of all cases of HL
  • The involved lymph nodes contain
    • R-S cells
    • Normal WBCs
    • Lacunar cells (grouped lacunars)- type of RS cells
    • Scar tissue (birefringent collagenous sclerosis)
  • The disease is more common in women than men
  • Usually affects adolescents and adults under 50
  • Most patients are cured with current treatments
classic hodgkin lymphoma1
Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma

Mixed-cellularity HL

  • Accounts for about 15-30% of all cases of HL
  • Found more commonly in men than women
  • Lymph nodes contain heterogeneous mix of cells; R-S cells in addition to several other cell types
  • Primarily affects older adults
  • More advanced disease is usually present by the time this subtype is diagnosed
classic hodgkin lymphoma2
Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma

Lymphocyte-rich HL

  • < 5% of HL cases
  • The disease may be diffuse (spread out) or nodular (knot-like) in form
  • Characterized by the presence of numerous normal-appearing lymphocytes and classical R-S cells.
  • Usually diagnosed at an early stage in adults and has a low relapse (returns after treatment) rate

Lymphocyte depletion HL

  • Rarely diagnosed
  • Abundant R-S cells and few normal lymphocytes are present in the lymph nodes of patients with this subtype
  • Aggressive and usually not diagnosed until it is widespread through the body
classic hodgkin lymphoma4
Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma

Histologic progression

HL progresses from: Lymphocyte rich → mixed cellularity → lymphocyte depletion lymphoma

Clinical features:

  • ~9,000 new cases of HL are projected each year
  • Most commonly diagnosed in young adults 15-35yrs and in adults over 50
  • Most patients with HL present with swelling of the lymph nodes (which is often but not always painless)
  • Fever, night sweats, unexplained weight loss, and lack of energy
diagnosis and staging of hl
Diagnosis and staging of HL

Clinical staging for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) includes

  • Careful history
  • Detailed physical examination
  • Laboratory studies (CBC, sedimentation rate, chemistry panel; liver, kidney, bone profile)
  • Thoracic and abdominal/pelvic computerized tomographic (CT) scans
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scans, gallium scans
  • Bone marrow biopsy if symptomatic, Cytopenia or advanced stage
diagnosis and staging of hl1
Diagnosis and staging of HL

Most widely used staging scheme - Cotswold’s revision of the Ann Harbor classification

Stage I - Involvement of a single lymph node region (cervical, axillary, inguinal, mediastinal) or lymphoid structure (spleen, thymus, or Waldeyer's ring)

Stage II - Involvement of two or more lymph node regions or structures on the same side of the diaphragm. Hilar nodes should be considered to be "lateralized“. All nodal disease within the mediastinum is considered to be a single lymph node region. The number of anatomic regions should be indicated by a subscript (II-3).

Stage III – Involvement of lymph node regions or lymphoid structures on both sides of the diaphragm.

III-1 with or without the involvement of the spleen, hilar, celiac or portal nodes; and stage

III-2 with involvement of the paraaortic, iliac, inguinal, or mesenteric nodes

Stage IV - Involvement of one or more extranodal organs or tissue beyond that designated E, with or without associated lymph node involvement

diagnosis and staging of hl2
Diagnosis and staging of HL

Subclassification of stage

Stages I, II, III, and IV adult HL can be sub classified into A and B categories:

B for those with defined general symptoms

A for those without B symptoms

The B designation is given to patients with any of the following symptoms:

  • Unexplained loss of more than 10% of body weight in the 6 months before diagnosis
  • Unexplained fever with temperatures above 38°C
  • Drenching night sweats

stage1 of hl
Stage1 of HL

Stage I adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer is found in one lymphatic area (lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, or spleen). In stage IE (not shown), cancer is found in one organ or area outside the lymph nodes.

E: is used if the disease is "extranodal" (not in the lymph nodes) or has spread from lymph nodes to adjacent tissue

stage 11 of hl
Stage 11 of HL

Stage II: Cancer in two or more lymph node groups, and both are either above (a) or below (b) the diaphragm

Stage IIE Cancer in one or more lymph node groups either above or below the diaphragm and outside the lymph nodes in an organ or area on the same side of the diaphragm as the lymph nodes with cancer (a).

stage 111 of hl
Stage 111 of HL

Stage III - in one or more lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm (a).

Stage IIIE - in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm and outside the lymph nodes in a nearby organ or area (b).

Stage IIIS - in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm (a) and in the spleen (c).

Stage IIIE plus S,- in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm, outside the lymph nodes in a nearby organ or area (b), and in the spleen (c).

stage 1v of hl
Stage 1V of HL

Stage IV: Cancer found throughout one or more organs that are not part of a lymphatic area (lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, or spleen) (a); or in one organ that is not part of a lymphatic area and has spread to lymph nodes far away from that organ (b); or cerebrospinal fluid (not shown), the liver, bone marrow, or lungs.

treatment and prognosis
Treatment and prognosis
  • Based on staging evaluation
  • Multiagent chemotherapy
  • 10 year survival for stage 1 and 11 > 80%
  • 10 year survival for stages 111 and 1V improved with aggressive chemotherapy ~70%
non hodgkin lymphoma
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
  • Any of a large group of cancers of lymphocytes
  • Can occur at any age
  • Marked by lymph nodes that are larger than normal, fever, and weight loss
  • Many different types divided into aggressive (fast-growing) and indolent (slow-growing) types
  • Can be formed from either B-cells or T-cells
  • Estimated new cases and deaths from non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the United States in 2013:
    • New cases: 69,740
    • Deaths: 19,020

non hodgkin lymphoma1
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas

  • Burkitt lymphoma
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL)
  • Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
  • Follicular lymphoma
  • Immunoblastic large cell lymphoma
  • Precursor B-lymphoblastic lymphoma
  • Mantle cell lymphoma
non hodgkin lymphoma2
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas

  • Mycosis fungoides
  • Anaplastic large cell lymphoma
  • Precursor T-lymphoblastic lymphoma

Lymphomas that occur after bone marrow or stem cell transplantation are usually B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas

Prognosis and treatment depend on the stage and type of disease.

etiology and pathogenesis1
Etiology and pathogenesis
  • Damage to region of the genetic code that regulate growth and reproduction of immune cells
  • May be due to chemicals, ionizing radiation, viruses (EBV)
  • Genetic damage associated with numeric and/or structural alterations in chromosomes
  • Chromosomal abnormalities demonstrated in 60% of NHL cases
  • Mainly translocations in chromosomes 2,8,14,22
  • Chromosomal regions relates to function of the genetic material
    • t(11;14) = BCL1-IgH; t(14;18) = IgH- BCL2; t(3;14) = BCL6-IgH
etiology and pathogenesis2
Etiology and pathogenesis

Best example

  • Burkitt’s lymphoma – in 90% of cases – c-myc proto-oncogene located at region q24 of chr 8 translocated to IgH chain 14q32
  • Also in 40% of large-cell lymphomas
pathology of nhl
Pathology of NHL

Classification schemes based on:

  • Growth pattern: nodular or diffuse
  • Cytological features of malignant cells

Historically the most widely used in USA: Working formulation for clinical usage

Working Formulation has become outdated and less useful to clinicians and pathologists

European and American pathologists proposed a new classification

  • The Revised European American Lymphoma (REAL) classification
pathology of nhl1
Pathology of NHL

Since 1995, members of the European and American Hematopathology societies have been collaborating on a new World Health Organization (WHO) classification

  • Represents an updated version of the REAL system
  • Utilizes clinical, morphological, immunophenotypic and genotypic features
  • Requires an understanding of the morphology of the lymph nodes and the maturation of normal lymphocytes
pathology of nhl2
Pathology of NHL

The WHO modification of the REAL classification identifies three major categories of lymphoid malignancies based on morphology and cell lineage:

  • B-cell neoplasms
  • T-cell/natural killer (NK)-cell neoplasms
  • Hodgkin lymphoma

Both lymphomas and lymphoid leukemias are included in this classification because both solid and circulating phases are present in many lymphoid neoplasms and distinction between them is artificial.

  • B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and B-cell small lymphocytic lymphoma are different manifestations of the same neoplasm
  • Also lymphoblastic lymphomas and acute lymphocytic leukemias

Within B-cell and T-cell categories, two subdivisions:

  • Precursor neoplasms= earliest stages of differentiation
  • Mature neoplasms
lymph nodes
Lymph nodes

Three major anatomical regions

Cortex – populated by B cells, plasma cells, reticular cells

B cell organized into nodules - 1o or 2o follicles

1o follicles → 2o follicles containing a germinal center

Germinal center surrounded by mantle zone (crescent of B cells)

Germinal center contains – centrocytes, centroblasts, dendritic cells, histiocytes/macrophages

lymph nodes1
Lymph nodes

Paracortex – occupied by T-cells

Medulla – contains T cells, B cells, macrophages, plasma cells

NHL arise from any of these normal cellular counterparts

B cell – most common 85-90%

T/NK – 10-15%

Histiocytes and dendritic cells - < 1%

follicular b cell lymphoma
Follicular B-cell lymphoma
  • The most common of the indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas = 40% of adult NHL
  • The second-most-common form of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas overall
  • It is a lymphoma of follicle center B-cells (centrocytes and centroblasts) with at least partial follicular growth pattern
    • Follicular growth should be included in the pathologic assessment
  • Positive for the B-cell markers CD10, CD19, CD20, and CD22 but almost always negative for CD5
  • A translocation between chromosome 14 and 18 results in the overexpression of the bcl-2 gene
follicular b cell lymphoma1
Follicular B-cell lymphoma

According to the WHO criteria, the disease is morphologically graded into

  • grade 1 (<5 centroblasts per high-power field (hpf))
  • grade 2 (6–15 centroblasts/hpf)
  • grade 3 (>15 centroblasts/hpf)
    • grade 3A (centrocytes still present)
    • grade 3B (the follicles consist almost entirely of centroblasts
    • More aggressive than grades 1 and 2

Progression from follicular to more aggressive diffuse large cell lymphoma – 40% of cases

Male: female – 1:1

Survival rate at 5yrs >60%

mantle cell lymphoma
Mantle cell lymphoma

Characterized by

  • small-to-medium sized lymphocytes with pale staining cytoplasm
  • Irregular nucleus
  • Inconspicuous nucleoli
  • Cells express CD5, Cd34
  • t(11;l4)
  • A disease of older adults
  • Male: female – 3:1
  • Disease widespread at diagnosis
  • Lymph nodes and spleen as most common sites of involvement
  • One of the rarest of the NHL
mucosal associated lymphoid tissue
Mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue
  • Marginal zone- poorly defined anatomical compartment of the lymph nodes
  • Small cleaved cell (centrocytes-like)
  • Lymphomas related to marginal zone cells – referred to as lymphomas of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)
  • Frequently of the stomach, but virtually any mucosal site can be afflicted.
  • Originate from B cells in the marginal zone of the MALT
  • Also called extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma
t cell and nk cell lymphomas
T-cell and NK cell lymphomas
  • T-cell lymphomas account for ~15% of all NHLs in the USA
  • NK cell shares many features with T-cells
  • When NK cells become cancerous, the cancer is called NK or NK/T-cell lymphoma
  • Many different forms of T-cell lymphomas, some of which are extremely rare
  • T-cell lymphomas can be aggressive (fast-growing) or indolent (slow-growing)
t cell and nk cell lymphomas1
T-cell and NK cell lymphomas
  • Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) - entire group of mature or "post-thymic" T-cell lymphomas (arise from mature T-cells)
    • distinguishes them from the immature T-cell lymphomas such as acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) or lymphoblastic lymphoma.
  • Under this broad meaning, almost all types of T-cell lymphoma fall under the category of PTCL
  • Cells characteristically express CD3, the T-cell receptor (TCR) αβ or γδ chains, and either CD4 or CD8
  • Natural killer (NK) cells share the same ontogeny with T cells
    • + NK-cell markers CD56
t cell and nk cell lymphomas2
T-cell and NK cell lymphomas

Because of morphological phenotypic and genotypic complexity of T/NK cells clinical features are necessary in classification of the lymphomas

Three patterns of clinical presentation of mature T/NK cell lymphoma

  • Nodal
  • Extranodal
  • Leukemic/disseminated
t cell and nk cell lymphomas3
T-cell and NK cell lymphomas

Nodal group most common in western countries

    • Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified
    • Anaplastic large cell lymphoma
    • Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified (PTCL)

  • Most common of all the T-cell lymphomas
  • Involves the lymph nodes, other sites such as the liver, bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, and skin, may also be involved.
  • PTCLs is aggressive and requires combination chemotherapy upon diagnosis
  • Usually Tdt-, CD3+, CD4+, CD8-
t cell and nk cell lymphomas4
T-cell and NK cell lymphomas

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma

  • Accounts for ~12-15% of all T-cell lymphomas in adults and 10-30% of all lymphomas in children.
  • Can be divided into three types:
    • 2 systemic (presents in lymph nodes or organs) subtypes
    • 1 non-systemic subtype – appears only on the skin - not to be confused with primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma
    • The systemic types are usually fast-growing, while the skin-only type is usually more slow-growing
  • Characterized by large cell with kidney-shaped nuclei and eosinophilic inclusion-like region adjacent to the nucleus

Unusual in that it responds to therapy

Overall survival – 80% at 5yrs

t cell and nk cell lymphomas5
T-cell and NK cell lymphomas

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma

  • Fast-growing; accounting for 1-2% of all T-cell lymphomas in the United States
  • Initial symptoms often include swollen lymph nodes and systemic symptoms such as fever and rash.
  • It is generally treated like other fast-growing T-cell lymphomas, but can be managed with milder therapies in certain circumstances
  • Affected lymph nodes contain mixture of atypical lymphoid cells, follicular dendritic cells, thick-walled high endothelial venules
  • CD4+, CD21+
  • Usually follows an aggressive clinical course
t cell and nk cell lymphomas6
T-cell and NK cell lymphomas

Primary Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma (PCTL)

  • Extranodal presentation
  • Accounts for 2-3% of all NHL cases and usually affects adults.
  • Agroup of typically slow-growing cancers that appear on and are most often confined to the skin
    • Mycosis fungoides, which appears as skin patches or plaques, is the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
    • Less common forms include: Sézary syndrome
    • Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma
    • Lymphomatoid papulosis
t cell and nk cell lymphomas7
T-cell and NK cell lymphomas

Require thin sections of fixed paraffin-embedded material to observe the peculiar cerebriform nucleus of malignant T-cells

90% exhibit pan-T+, CD4+, CD8-

10% exhibit pan-T+, CD4-, CD8+

Different from systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma

  • Both CD30+, but PCTLs are epithelial membrane antigen (EMA)- negative;
  • T(2;5) translocation (+) for systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (-) for PCTL

PCTL is indolent, incurable versus the aggressive curable systemic anaplastic lymphoma

t cell and nk cell lymphomas8
T-cell and NK cell lymphomas

Staging is similar to that of HD

Treatment and prognosis

Based on two categories

  • Indolent
    • relatively long median survival without therapy (7-9 yrs)
    • Can be treated with radiotherapy
    • 90% present at stage 111 or 1V- sensitive to radiation and chemo, but incurable with standard Multiagent chemo
  • Aggressive
    • Rapidly fatal if untreated
    • Potentially curable with aggressive treatment strategies
  • Adults > 45yrs have longer survival than younger patients
  • Median survival more favorable for B-cell than for T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma
multiple myeloma and related plasma cell disorders
Multiple myeloma and related plasma cell disorders

Multiple myeloma is a disorder characterized by:

  • Proliferation of abnormal plasma cells in the BM
  • Tumor of plasma cells – plasmacytoma
  • Monoclonal gammopathy – over production of an antibody in the serum
  • Secretion of Bence-Jones proteins in the urine
  • Symptoms of bone destruction, hypercalcemia, kidney failure, hyperviscosity, pancytopenia, anemia, bleeding episodes, increased susceptibility to infections
plasma cell development
Plasma cell development

B cells develop from multipotential stem cells present in BM. Following encounter with Ag, naïve B cells can differentiate into short-lived plasmablasts, secreting predominantly IgM-first line of defense against infection. Alternatively, activated naïve B cells can seed a GC, where affinity maturation and differentiation into long-lived memory and plasma cells occur. Following their generation, memory cells and PCs can then migrate into niches in distinct sites (MALT, BM, splenic red pulp) where they receive survival cues from neighboring cells.

  • Igs have two identical light chains (25kD), two identical heavy chains (50kD)
  • Held together by disulfide bonds
  • Antibody produced by each plasma cell has only one type of light chain and one type of heavy chain
  • 5 types of heavy chains;γ, α, μ,δ, ε
    • IgG1-4, IgA1,2
  • 2 types of light chains; κ, λ
  • IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE
  • IgM does not cross the placenta
    • Transient antibody produced in response to infection
    • Unmeasurable within 2wks after initiation
  • IgG next to respond
    • Remains until antigenic stimulus is removed
  • IgG and IgA form dimers
    • IgA provides protection of epithelial surfaces in GI tract and airways
  • IgE – allergic/hypersensitivity reactions
  • IgD – role unclear
  • Overproduction of Igs is the hallmark of plasma cell disorders
laboratory recognition and measurement
Laboratory recognition and measurement

Electrophoresis (SPEP)

  • Total protein in serum measured in routine chemistry
  • Includes albumin, Igs, α1-antitrypsin, α2-macroglobulin, transferrin, β-lipoprotein
  • Total albumin also measured
  • Total protein – albumin = ~Ig fraction
  • Need to differentiate between polyclonal and monoclonal
    • Polyclonal – in infections
    • Monoclonal – plasma cell disorders
  • Then perform Immunofixation to investigate abnormal spike on SPEP


Normal pattern

Monoclonal spike

Polyclonal production

IgM M spike


immunofixation ife
Immunofixation (IFE)

Proteins separated by electrophoresis

Mono-specific antibody added

Precipitation of proteins occur → washing → staining of remaining immunoprecipitate

Example of identification of a monoclonal serum protein by immunofixation electrophoresis

The first track is serum protein electrophoresis (ELP).

The next tracks are IgG, IgA, IgM, κlight chains and λ light chains (L)

The arrow indicates the position of the monoclonal protein.

The second track identifies the protein as IgG after reaction with IgG antibody and protein staining.

The sixth track identifies the light chain as λ.

laboratory recognition and measurement1
Laboratory recognition and measurement

Quantitative Igs

  • By measuring decree of turbidity by light scatter caused by Ag-Ab complexes
  • Mix patient sample with specific Ab reagent
  • Use nephelometer
  • Clonality to be determined by SPEP and IFE

Free serum light chains (FLC)

  • Detect monoclonal FLC not detected by SPEP or IFE
  • Automated immunoassay
  • For diagnosis of and monitoring of myelomas and Amyloid light chain amyloidosis
laboratory recognition and measurement2
Laboratory recognition and measurement

Bence-Jones proteinuria

  • Imbalanced Ig production yields an excess of free light chains (κ/λ)
  • Rapidly metabolized by blood → increased production of FLC being filtered into urine
  • Proteins precipitate at 40-60oC, dissolve at 100oC, re-precipitate on cooling
  • Need 24-hr urine collection
  • FLC can be deposited in kidneys → leakage of protein into urine and kidney failure
clinical consequences of increased monoclonal ig
Clinical consequences of increased monoclonal Ig

Hyperviscosity syndrome

  • Viscous blood → decreased blood flow to vital organs → increased workload on the heart → headaches, dementia, stroke, coma, congestive heart failure
  • Most cases seen with IgM, IgA, IgG3 – higher molecular weights
  • Plasmapheresis – plasma exchange in symptomatic patients

Decreased production of normal Igs

  • Abnormal Ig suppresses plasma cell production of other Igs → increased susceptibility to infections (main cause of death of multiple myeloma patients)
  • May require intravenous infusion of Ig
clinical consequences of increased monoclonal ig1
Clinical consequences of increased monoclonal Ig

Cryoglobulinemic syndrome

  • Due to the presence of abnormal Igs called cryoglobulinsin the blood
  • Cryoglobulinsbecome thick or gel-like in cold temperatures→ block blood vessels throughout the body
  • On exposure to cold, patients experience painful extremities, palpable purpura
  • Can lead to complications ranging from skin rashes to kidney failure
clinical consequences of increased monoclonal ig2
Clinical consequences of increased monoclonal Ig

Cryoglobulinemic syndrome

Three main types, depending on the type of antibody that is produced:

  • Cryoglobulinemiatype I-
    • Monoclonal Ig (IgG or IgM)
    • Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia and/or multiple myeloma
  • Cryoglobulinemia type II
    • Mixed polyclonal Ig
    • Patients with viral infections; HCV, HIV
  • Cryoglobulinemia type III
    • Mixed Igs
    • Secondary to connective tissue disease
monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

(MGUS) – benign monoclonal gammopathy

Evident when patient has small M spike

Urine light chain of < 1g/24hrs

No lytic bone lesions

< 10% plasma cells in BM

No end organ damage from monoclonal Ig overproduction

20% develop multiple myeloma, NHL, CLL

multiple myeloma
Multiple myeloma
  • Most common plasma cell dyscrasia
  • Affects terminally differentiated B cells
  • Multi step process
  • Incurable but responsive to various therapies
  • Survival ranges from <1yr – 15yrs
  • Characterized by triad:
    • Abnormal proliferation of plasma cells in BM
    • Over production of monoclonal Ig
    • Lytic/destructive bone disease
  • Disease manifestations of triad:
    • Life threatening end-organ damage
    • Renal insufficiency
    • Anemia, immunosuppression, infections
multiple myeloma1
Multiple myeloma

Most devastating feature

Osteolytic lesions → bone pain, pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, hypercalcemia

  • Accounts for 10% of all hematological malignancies; 1% of all cancers
  • Median age of presentation – 67yrs
  • Higher in men than women
  • Only hematological malignancy that is higher among Blacks, lowest in Asians
  • Unknown cause – but associated with chronic stimulation of immune system
d iagnostic work up of multiple myeloma
Diagnostic work up of Multiple myeloma

If clinical symptoms (anemia, renal insufficiency, bone pain, neuropathy, high protein levels) suggests MM then perform confirmatory testing to establish stage and prognosis

Diagnostic criteria

1.Biopsy proven plasmacytoma

11. BM Plasmacytosis

111. Monoclonal protein- M spike


Calcium; >11mg/dL

Renal insufficiency; creatinine >2 mg/dL

Anemia; Hgb <10g/dL

Bony lesions; lytic lesions, osteoporosis

d iagnostic work up of multiple myeloma1
Diagnostic work up of Multiple myeloma

Blood count and PB smear

  • CBC – normocytic normochromic anemia
  • PB smear – rouleaux formation of RBC due to ↑ Igs in blood
  • ↑ Sedimentation rate blood test
    • measures how quickly RBCs settle in a test tube in one hour. The more red cells that fall to the bottom of the test tube in one hour, the higher the sedrate
d iagnostic work up of multiple myeloma2
Diagnostic work up of Multiple myeloma

Chemistry studies

  • ↑ BUN, creatinine (kidney function affected by MM)
  • ↑ Calcium – calcium is usually bound to albumin, unbound or free calcium major cause of symptoms;
  • ↓ albumin- prognostic criterion in MM
  • Β2- Microglobulin – most useful predictor of tumor load and ↓ activity – predicts the prognosis for MM
  • C-reactive protein
d iagnostic work up of multiple myeloma3
Diagnostic work up of Multiple myeloma

Bone marrow examination

  • ↑ plasma cells – forms sheets with immature, bi-nucleated, large cells - plasmacytoma
  • Flame cells – large intensely staining (IgA)
  • Plasmacytosis 10-100%
  • CD38,CD56,CD138 (+)
  • sIg, pan-B-cell antigen CD19 (-)
  • ± CD20, CD52
diagnostic work up of multiple myeloma
Diagnostic work up of Multiple myeloma

X-rays, CT scans

  • A series of X-rays are taken to find out whether there is any bone damage. Any sign of bone damage will appear as dark areas in X-ray pictures
  • If the doctor requires more detailed images an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) or CT (computerized tomography) scan may be ordered


  • Slow to be recognized and implemented
  • Chromosomal abnormalities found in 30-40% of patients
  • Monosomy 13, 13q14 deletion and hypodiploidy have worst prognosis
  • Chromosomal translocations
  • Gene expression profiling – emerging technology to id subgroups
waldenstr m s macroglobulinemia
Waldenström's macroglobulinemia
  • Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma
  • Type of lymphoproliferative disease - shares clinical characteristics with the indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas
  • Overproduction of the IgM antibody → hyperviscosity
    • makes it harder for blood to flow through small blood vessels
  • 1,400 people in the United States are diagnosed every year
  • Most people with this condition are over age 65, however, it may occur in younger people
  • The average survival ~6.5 years. Some people live more than 10 years
  • In some people, the disorder may produce few symptoms and progress slowly
waldenstr m s macroglobulinemia1
Waldenström's macroglobulinemia
  • Physical examination - a swollen spleen, liver, and lymph nodes. An eye exam may show enlarged veins in the retina or retinal bleeding (hemorrhages)
  • Cryoglobulinemic purpura
  • CBC - ↓ RBCs and platelets
    • Bleeding of gums and nose
    • Prolonged bleeding time
  • Blood chemistry – evidence of kidney disease
  • A serum viscosity test can tell if the blood has become thick
    • Symptoms usually occur when the blood is four times thicker than normal
  • SPEP shows ↑of the IgM antibody
    • Levels seen are generally greater than 3 g/dL
waldenstr m s macroglobulinemia2
Waldenström's macroglobulinemia

Chemotherapy - primary treatment


Rituximab – monoclonal Ab against CD20

  • Protein conformation disorder
  • Protein becomes insoluble → deposition in extracellular matrix of organs
  • Most common precursor protein that result in amyloidosis – protein derived from Ig light chain fragments (λ secretions) – source plasma cell
  • Less common – AA amyloidosis – associated with inflammation
  • Rare and potentially fatal when deposited insoluble proteins impair organ functions
  • Causes progressive loss of organ function
  • Chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation and plasmapheresis to eliminate the plasma cell
  • Similar to Light chain deposition on disease ( LCDD)
    • LCDD do not form amyloid fibrils, and is usually related toκsecretions
lipid storage disease and histiocytosis
Lipid storage disease and histiocytosis

Lipid storage diseases, lipidoses, lysosomal storage disease

  • Group of autosomal inherited metabolic disorders
  • Harmful amounts of fatty materials (lipids) accumulate in various cells and tissues in the body
  • Caused by enzyme deficiencies - either do not produce enough of one of the enzymes needed to metabolize lipids or have enzyme defects
  • Over time excessive storage of fats →permanent cellular and tissue damage particularly in the brain, peripheral nervous system, liver, spleen, and bone marrow
lipid storage disease
Lipid storage disease

Most widely known:

  • Gaucher’s disease
  • Niemann-Pick disease
  • Tay-Sach’s disease
  • Mucopolysaccharidose – rare

Increased incidence of Gaucher’s and Tay-Sach’s in Ashkenazi Jews

Wide clinical expression- from asymptomatic to fatal

Prenatal detection is the aim of control

Enzyme replacement – current effective therapy

gaucher disease
Gaucher disease

Most common of the lipid storage diseases

Caused by a deficiency of the enzyme β-glucocerebrosidase

Mutations in the GBA gene greatly reduce or eliminate the activity of beta-glucocerebrosidase→ Accumulation of unmetabolized substrate glucocerebroside in cells

  • Mainly in the monocyte-macrophage system
  • Produces the distinctive Gaucher’s cells – histiocytes 20-100µm in diameter with displaced nucleus

Clinical Triad

  • Hepatoslenomegaly
  • Gaucher’s cells in BM
  • ↑ serum acid phosphatase
gaucher disease1
Gaucher disease

Fatty material can collect in the spleen, liver, kidneys, lungs, brain, and bone marrow.

Symptoms may include:

  • enlarged spleen and liver
  • liver malfunction
  • skeletal disorders and bone lesions that may cause pain and fractures
  • severe neurologic complications
  • swelling of lymph nodes and (occasionally) adjacent joints
  • distended abdomen
  • a brownish tint to the skin, anemia
  • low blood platelets, and yellow spots in the eyes
  • Persons affected most seriously may also be more susceptible to infection
gaucher disease2
Gaucher disease

Type 1- most common

10-25% of patients

No treatment needed


Type 2 – more uniform presentation than type 1

Type 3 – two distinct subtypes, a and b

gaucher s disease treatment
Gaucher’s disease treatment

Enzyme replacement treatment given intravenously every two weeks can dramatically decrease liver and spleen size, reduce skeletal abnormalities, and reverse other manifestations.

Successful bone marrow transplantation cures the non-neurological manifestations of the disease – high risk therapy, rarely performed for Gaucher’s disease

niemann pick disease
Niemann-Pick disease

Heterogeneous group of disorders

Increased incidence in Jewish population

This disorder is divided into five main types based on the genetic cause and the signs and symptoms (A,B,C,D,E)

Clinical manifestation

  • Retardation
  • Hepatoslenomegaly
  • Lymphadenopathy
  • Pigmentation
  • Impaired neurologic function
  • Niemann-Pick cells – lipid-laden giant foam cells found in affected tissues
niemann pick disease1
Niemann-Pick disease

Niemann-Pick disease type A

Deficiency of the sphingomyelinase enzyme

→ accumulation of unmetabolized sphingomyelin

Sphingomyelin – sphingophospholipd - constituent of the cell membrane

  • Known as infantile or classic Niemann Pick
  • Appears during infancy
  • Characterized by Hepatoslenomegaly
  • Failure to thrive
  • Progressive deterioration of the nervous system.
  • Known as the neurological type.
  • Children affected by this condition generally do not survive past early childhood
niemann pick disease2
Niemann-Pick disease

Niemann-Pick disease type B

  • Deficiency of the sphingomyelinase enzyme
  • Chronic or adult form
  • Features include Hepatoslenomegaly
  • Growth retardation
  • Problems with lung function including frequent lung infections.
  • Decreased platelets
  • Niemann-Pick disease type B is also known as the non-neurological type because the nervous system is not usually affected
  • Live longer than type A – Type B usually survive into adulthood
niemann pick disease3
Niemann-Pick disease

Niemann-Pick disease type C

  • Mutations in either the NPC1 or NPC2 gene
  • The NPC1 gene involve with cholesterol transport within cells
    • Cholesterol and sphingomyelin accumulates
  • Most common form with onset in early childhood
  • Severe liver disease
  • Breathing difficulties
  • Developmental delay
  • Neurologic abnormalities
  • Can survive into adulthood
  • Types C1 and C2, caused by NPC1 and NPC2, respectively
    • Infantile or juvenile and Adolescent or adult form
niemann pick disease4
Niemann-Pick disease

No effective treatment for Niemann-Pick

allogeneic BM transplant done for type B with encouraging results

Splenectomy rarely required – death usually occurs before

Prognosis of type A – very poor

Type B – may survive into childhood or adult life

Type C – die usually in second decade of life

tay sachs disease
Tay-Sachs disease
  • Also known as GM2 gangliosidosis
  • Rare autosomal recessive sphingolipidosis as a result of hexosaminidase A deficiency
  • Most common variant -infantile Tay–Sachs disease
  • Causes a progressive deterioration of nerve cells and of mental and physical abilities
  • Starts at ~ 6mths of age
  • Results in death by the age of four
  • Accumulation of harmful quantities of gangliosides in almost all tissues → the premature death
    • Affects central nervous system and eye
    • Cherry red spot in macula of each eye
    • Macrocephaly
  • 1in 30 carrier rate in the Ashkenazi Jewish population
tay sachs disease1
Tay-Sachs disease


  • Peripheral blood contains vacuolated lymphocytes
  • Prenatal detection
  • Detection of hexosaminidase A levels in serum, plasma, leukocytes and cultured fibroblasts of infants
  • Mass screening of adults

Prognosis and treatment

  • Fatal before age 4
  • Attempting enzyme replacement, results not yet known
  • Supportive treatment – manage hydration, infections, seizures
mucopolysaccharidoses mps
Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS)
  • Rare disorder
  • Caused by the absence or malfunctioning of lysosomal enzymes needed to break down mucopolysaccharides –
    • long chains of sugar carbohydrates in each of our cells that help build bone, cartilage, tendons, corneas, skin and connective tissue.
  • Mucopolysaccharides (also called glycosaminoglycans) are also found in the joint fluid
  • Deficiency of one of the enzymes involved in mucopolysaccharide metabolism
  • Glycosaminoglycans collect in the cells, blood and connective tissues
    • → permanent, progressive cellular damage which affects appearance, physical abilities, organ and system functioning, and, in most cases, mental development
  • Arranged into seven categories

Abnormal proliferation and accumulation of mature histiocytes or Langerhans's cells

Sea blue histiocyte syndrome

Striking blue color of histiocytes after staining with Wright’s stain

Isolated in young adults with enlarged spleen

Abnormalities of the eye, skin, nervous system, lung

Laboratory findings confined to the blood


Most have normal life spans