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PASS Review

PASS Review

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PASS Review

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  1. PASS Review

  2. Stone Age Periods • Old Stone Age -> Paleolithic *hunters and gatherers *nomad -> no permanent home *stone tools and weapons *cave art / NO written records

  3. STONE AGE PERIODS • New Stone Age -> Neolithic *man lived in larger groups *AGRICULTURE BEGAN *DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS *SURPLUS CROPS *SPECIALIZATION OF JOBS

  4. Man’s Migration out of Africa

  5. Man’s Migration into the Americas

  6. FIRST CIVILIZATIONS!! RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS: • Mesopotamia • Egypt • China • India

  7. River Valley Civilizations

  8. Mesopotamia In the FERTILE CRESCENT Included Sumerian & Babylonian Empires *land between the rivers = TIGRIS & EUPHRATES *Sargon -> created FIRST EMPIRE *Hammurabi -> FIRST CODE OF LAWS Hammurabi’s Code of Laws *Achievements: wheel, ZIGGURAT (religious center) Hanging Gardens of Babylon, glass, *WRITING = CUNEIFORM

  9. Map of Fertile Crescent

  10. Map of Mesopotamia

  11. Sumerian Cuneiform

  12. Hammurabi’s Code of Laws

  13. ziggurat

  14. Judaism • Began in Fertile Crescent in Canaan *FIRST MONOTHEISTIC Religion *begun by Abraham *holy text = Torah *Ten Commandments * Moses led Hebrews from Egypt to Canaan

  15. Torah

  16. Egypt Began along the NILE RIVER *Menes -> united Upper and Lower Egypt *Khufu -> (Cheops) Great Pyramid *Hatshepsut -> female pharaoh *Tutankhamun -> boy king, tomb found by Howard Carter *architecture = pyramids *writing = HIEROGLYPHICS on papyrus *government = pharaohs *economy = agriculture / FLOODING PRODUCED RICH SILT *religion = polytheistic *mummification

  17. Egypt Egypt

  18. hieroglyphics

  19. Great Pyramids of Giza

  20. India Began along the INDUS RIVER *subcontinent of Asian Himalayas cut it off from the rest of the continent *cities = Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa sometimes called Harappan Civilization *writing = SANSKRIT *TWO religions began here = HINDUISM & BUDDHISM

  21. Indus River Valley

  22. Hinduism • Polytheistic religion introduced by theAryans • Brahman = supreme being • holy text = Vedas / “Books of Knowledge” • CASTE SYSTEM = different levels in society • REINCARNATION = cycle of birth, death, & rebirth • dharma = laws and duties of Hindus

  23. Buddhism • Founder = Siddhartha Gautama “the Buddha” • Beliefs = Four Noble Truths (Suffering in Life) Middle Way Eightfold Path to reach Nirvana Reincarnation • Karma = end result of good & bad acts • NO caste system

  24. Four Noble Truths

  25. The Buddha

  26. China • Began along HUANG RIVER or Yellow River (because of loess or silt) • government = dynasties Shang was the first *Mandate of Heaven = right to rule from the gods • oracle bones = predict the future

  27. China continued: • architecture = Great Wall of China -> built to keep out the Mongols • tomb for Shihuangdi 1,000s of clay soldiers & horses • achievements = SILK, Silk Road, seismograph, new type of rice, gunpowder, woodblock moveable type • TWO religions began here = Confucianism & Taoism or Daoism

  28. Great Wall

  29. Shihuangdi’s Tomb

  30. Seismograph

  31. Silk Road

  32. Confucianism • Founder = Confucius • Social order, harmony, and good government based on STRONG FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS • 5 basic relationships • Education important to society

  33. Taoism or Daoism • Founder = Laozi • People should live simple lives in harmony with nature • There should be little interference from the government

  34. Greece • TWO important city-states -> ATHENS & SPARTA • Architecture = Parthenon in Athens / temple for the goddess Athena • acropolis = high hill in Greeks city-states • Sparta = military was important • Olympic Games • 7 Wonders of the Ancient World (man made) • writing = Greek alphabet / adopted from the Phoenicians • agora = market place

  35. Ancient Greece

  36. The Parthenon

  37. Athens FIRST DEMOCRACY in the world!! *people have a voice in the government

  38. Greece continued People / Know: *Socrates, Plato, & Aristotle = (SPA) philosophers *Archimedes = scientist & mathematician developed concept of pi *Homer = epic poems “The Iliad” & “The Odyssey” *Pericles = rich & poor had a part in the government / built Parthenon

  39. *Alexander the Great = King of Macedonia • conquered land in Europe, Africa, and Asia • military & political leader • began the Hellenistic Age = the Greek culture spread to other parts of the world

  40. Alexander’s Empire

  41. Rome • Created a large empire on 3 continents: Europe, Asia and Africa • Two groups of citizens = patricians (wealthy) & plebeians (common) • TWELVE TABLES = first written laws for Rome • Punic Wars = Rome fought Carthage and won • Pompeii buried by Mt. Vesuvius

  42. Rome continued: • Government = REPUBLIC -> people choose representatives to run the government *senators = patricians *tribunes represented plebeians *consuls = 2 elected officials /were supreme judges and commanders of the military

  43. Roman Empire

  44. Rome continued • People to know: *Julius Caesar = made himself dictator assassinated by friends *Augustus = (Octavian) first emperor ruled during Pax Romana *Constantine = Byzantine Empire / Eastern Roman Empire allowed Christianity • Two Roman Empires formed as Rome declined *Western Roman Empire (Rome) fell first *Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine) Constantinople lasted 1,000 more years

  45. Rome continued • JUSTINIAN CODE = created by Justinian of the Byzantine Empire-> strict but fair laws which gave the same rights to everyone, rich or poor • Achievements = aqueducts, domes, arches, Pantheon, Colosseum, roads, alphabet, Roman numerals, Latin, laws, concrete, keystones, etc.

  46. Roman aqueduct

  47. Roman Colosseum

  48. keystones