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Sedimentary Rocks. Chapter 3 Section 3. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. Sedimentary  sedimentum Latin for ‘settling’ Rock formed from compressed or cemented layers (DEPOSITS) of sediment. Sometimes fossils accumulate and are compacted/cemented together.

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sedimentary rocks

Sedimentary Rocks

Chapter 3 Section 3

sedimentary rocks1
  • Sedimentary  sedimentum Latin for ‘settling’
  • Rock formed from compressedorcementedlayers (DEPOSITS) of sediment.
  • Sometimes fossils accumulate and are compacted/cemented together.
  • Contain fragments of older rocks from weathering.

Canyonlands Nat. Park, Utah

formation of sedimentary rocks
Formation of Sedimentary Rocks
  • Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition
    • Weathering= breaks rocks into sediments; first step in

formation of sedimentary rocks (mechanical and


    • Erosion= water, wind, ice, gravity move weathered sediments
    • Deposition= when agents of erosion (listed above) lose

energy sediments stop moving  deposition

              • Deposited according to size—largest first
  • Compaction and Cementation
    • After sediments deposited become lithified (turned to rock)
      • Compaction= squeezes, or compacts, sediments; caused by weight of sediments
      • Cementation= dissolved minerals are deposited in the tiny

spaces among the sediments

Conglomerate rounded pebbles cemented together

  • Sandstone
  • grains are
  • cemented
classifying sedimentary rocks
Classifying Sedimentary Rocks

Breccia: quartz; clastic

  • Classified into two main groups according to the way they form:
    • Clastic: made of weathered bits of rocks and minerals
        • Most common minerals found in clastic = clay (most abundant product) of chemical weathering and quartz (durable and resistant to chemical weathering
        • Grouped according to size of sediments:
          • Conglomerate = larger pebbles
          • Sandstone = sand sized grains
          • Shale = most common sed. rock; fine grained
classifying sedimentary rocks1
Classifying Sedimentary Rocks
  • Chemical/Biochemical: form when dissolved minerals

precipitate (deposit in solid form)

from water solutions

    • Precipitation generally occurs when H2O evaporates or boils off leaving solid product.
      • Limestone = calcite and aragonite; clear, shallow marine

waters accumulation of shell coral, algal and

fecal debris or CaCO3 from water

        • Coquina=type of limestone biochemical – sediments of

shells and skeletal remains settle

      • Rock salt = halite (mineral form of NaCl); evaporation
      • Rock Gypsum = evaporation in shallow sea basins or salt

lakes gypsum precipitates


Rock Salt

  • Unique features of sedimentary rocks that are clues to how, when, and where they formed.
    • Layers law of superposition
    • Ripple marks: beach or stream bed
    • Fossils