Impact of Zebra Mussels as an Invasive Species. By: Melissa Malmstedt. Background on Zebra Mussels. Dreissena polymorpha Common name: Zebra Mussel Originally from Caspian Sea and Ural River Also native to the Balkans, Poland, and the former Soviet Union.
Impact of Zebra Mussels as an Invasive Species By: Melissa Malmstedt
Background on Zebra Mussels • Dreissena polymorpha • Common name: Zebra Mussel • Originally from Caspian Sea and Ural River • Also native to the Balkans, Poland, and the former Soviet Union
Occurrences of Zebra mussels in non native areas • Late 18th century – early 19th century spread throughout most of Europe • May have arrived in North America via a European ship's ballast water. • 1988 came from Canada’s Lake St. Clair into lake Huron and Lake Erie. • 1990 populations in all of the Great Lakes. • 1991 found in Hudson and Illinois rivers. • 1992 found in Mississippi, Arkansas, Ohio, and Tennessee rivers.
Biology of Zebra Mussels • Fresh water mollusks • Bivalve • Colonial • Filter feeders • Inhalant and exhalant siphons • Feed on algae
Ecology of Zebra Mussels • Optimal pH is between 7.4 and 8.5 • High oxygen between 8-10 parts per thousand • Temperatures between 17 and 25 degrees C. • Impact many species. • Unionids • Decreased zooplankton
Increase water clarity Increase in light Increase of macrophytes and macrophyte beds that serve nurseries for fish Prefer to attach to live unionids Ecology cont.
Reproduction • Females begin to reproduce around 2 years of age • Broadcast spawning triggered by: • Chemicals produced by algae • Temperature around 14-16 degrees C • Can produce 40,000 eggs in a single reproductive cycle
3 periods of life Larval Juvenile Adult Larvae; planktonic during trochophore, straight hinged veliger, and umbonal veliger stages. Pediveliger stage (settlement takes place) is the final larval form. Reproduction cont.
Reproduction cont. • Planligrade; stage between larval and juvenile periods. • Juvenile • Development of fertilized egg to juvenile can take anywhere from 8-240 days. • Change in morphology • Adult • Considered an adult when sexual maturity is reached.
Clog pipes Hydroelectric and nuclear power plants Public water supply Other industrial facilities Impact of Colonizing Zebra Mussels on Humans
Control of Zebra Mussels • Chemical • Oxidizing • Chlorination • Toxic pipes • Copper, brass, and galvanized metals are toxic to zebra mussels. • Biological • Bacteria • Predation • Ducks • Fish
Refrences Ackerman, J.D., Sim, B., Nichols, S.J., and Claudi, R. (1994). “A review of the early life history of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha): Comparisons with marine bivalves.” Can. J. Zool. 72:1169-1179. Genthnera, F., Winsteada, J., Gilleta, J., Van, A. Vielb, J., Genoveseb, E., Singerb, S. (1997) “Effects of a molluscicidal Strain of bacillus alveion on digestive tubules of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha” Journal of Invertabrate Pathology. 69: 289-291. Jack, J.D., Thorp, J.H. (2000). “ Effects of benthic suspension feeder Dreissena polymorpha on zooplankton in a large river.” Freshwater Biology. 44:569-579. MacIsaac, H.J. (1996). “Potential abiotic and biotic impacts of zebra mussels on the inland waters of North America,” Am. Zool. 36: 87-299 Rajagopal, S., Velde, G., Jenner, H. (2002) “Effects of low-level chlorination on zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha” Water Research. 36: 3029-3034. Schloesser, D.W., Nakepa, T.F., Mackie, G.L.(1996) “Zebra mussel infestation of unionid bivalves (Unionidae) in North America.” Amer. Zool. 36:300-310. Tucker, J.K. (1994)”Colonization of unionid bivalves by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha,in pool 26 of the Mississippi River.” J. Freshwater Ecol. 9:129-134. ----,Zebra Mussel Information System, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers