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AP BIOLOGY. Chapter 4 Carbon Chapter 5 Macromolecules . Organic Chemistry . Compounds containing C C, H, N, O, (P, S) Miller and Urey. Carbon bond Formation . CH 4 C 2 H 6 C 2 H 4. Hydrocarbons. Organic molecules consisting of C and H only

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ap biology

AP BIOLOGY

Chapter 4 Carbon

Chapter 5 Macromolecules

organic chemistry
Organic Chemistry
  • Compounds containing C
  • C, H, N, O, (P, S)
  • Miller and Urey
hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons
  • Organic molecules consisting of C and H only
  • Not prevalent in most living organisms, but most have regions of C and H
  • Examples: Fats
  • C-H are nonpolar, (similar electronegativity's)
  • Their rxs release lots of energy
isomers
Isomers
  • Same numbers of atoms of same elements, different in arrangement
  • 3 types
    • Structural isomers
    • Cis-trans isomers
    • Enantiomers
functional groups
Functional Groups
  • Groups that are directly involved in chemical reactions
slide8
ATP
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
macromolecules chapter 5
Macromolecules Chapter 5
  • All living things fall under 4 major classes
    • Carbs
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic acids

3 of the four are HUGE on a molecular scale

(proteins, carbs, nucleic acids)

slide10

Monomer- building blocks of polymers

  • Polymer- long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by chemical bonds
synthesis and breakdown
Synthesis and Breakdown
  • Enzymes are specialized macromolecules that speed up reactions
  • Dehydration rxns (called synthesis)

Dehydration removesa water molecule,forming a new bond.

synthesis and breakdown1
Synthesis and Breakdown

2. Hydrolysis- to break using water

Hydrolysis addsa water molecule,breaking a bond.

carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
  • Include both sugars and polymers of sugar
  • Monosaccharides (CH2O)
    • Molecule has a carbonyl group, and hydroxyl groups
    • Glucose, fructose, galactose
  • Disaccharides (2 monosacch. Joined by glycosidic linkage)
    • Glycosidic linkages are = to dehydration reaction
    • Maltose, sucrose, lactose
carbohydrates1
Carbohydrates
  • Polysaccharides
    • Joined by glycosidic linkages
    • 2 major categories of polysaccharides
    • Storage polysaccharides
      • Starch- plants store as energy within plastids and cholorplasts
        • Others include: amylose (unbranched) amylopectin
      • Glycogen- animals store glycogen mainly in liver and muscle cells
        • Hydrolysis of glycogen releases glucose
carbohydrates2
Carbohydrates

2. Structural polysaccharides

  • Cellulose- major component of cell wall in plants
  • Chitin- used by arthropods to build their exoskeletons
    • Exoskeleton- hard case that surrounds the soft part of an animal
proteins
Proteins
  • Important in almost everything organisms do
  • Varied functions
  • Catalysts- speed up rxns without being consumed in rxn
proteins1
Proteins
  • Polypeptides
    • Monomer- amino acids (all polymers are constructed from same set of 20 amino acids)
    • Polypeptides- polymers of amino acids
    • Protein- biologically functional molecule that consists of 1 or more polypeptides, each folded and coiled into a specific structure
proteins2
Proteins
  • Amino acid Monomer
protein function
Protein Function
  • Enzymatic-accelerate chemical rxns
  • Defensive- protection against disease
  • Storage
  • Transport- movement across cell membranes
  • Hormonal
  • Receptor- response of cells to chemical stimuli
  • Contractile/motor- movement
  • Structural- support

(see page 78 for more detail)

proteins3
Proteins
  • Amino acid polymers
  • Monomers link together via peptide bonds
levels of protein s tructure
Levels of Protein Structure
  • Primary
  • Linked series of a.a. with a unique sequence
levels of protein structure
Levels of Protein Structure

2. Secondary

  • Coiled or folded patterns
  • Alpha helix- coil
  • Beta-pleated sheet- accordion looking
levels of protein structure1
Levels of Protein Structure

3. Tertiary

  • Overall shape resulting from interactions of side chains
  • Interactions:
    • Hydrophobic interaction
    • Disulfide bridges
    • Ionic bonds
    • H bonds
levels of protein structure2
Levels of Protein Structure

4. Quaternary

  • Overall structure that is make up of polypeptide subunits
denaturation and r enaturation
Denaturation and Renaturation
  • Denaturation- when proteins become destroyed, lose its native shape due to changes in temp, pH, salinity, etc.
lipids
Lipids
  • Large class of large biomolecules that does not include true polymers
  • All lipids share one important trait:
      • They mix poorly, hydrophobic, hydrocarbons

Lipids include:

  • Fats
  • Phospholipids
  • Steroids
  • Waxes and pigments
lipids1
Lipids
  • Fats
    • Fat is constructed from two kids of small molecules (glycerol and fatty acids)
    • Fatty acid- has a long C skeleton 16-18 with carboxyl group
    • Hydrocarbons are reason why lipids are hydrophobic
lipids2
Lipids
  • Saturated fatty acid
    • No double bonds exist
    • Animal fats- lard, butter (solid at room temp.)
  • Unsaturated fatty acid
    • Has 1 or > double bonds
    • Most are cis
    • Plant and fish fat – oils, olive oil (liquid at room temp.)
phospholipids
Phospholipids
  • Make up cell membranes
  • Similar to fat but with 2 fatty acids attached to a glycerol.
  • When added with water they self assemble into a bilayer
steroids
Steroids
  • Lipids characterized by C consisting to 4 fused rings.
  • Cholesterol- within animal cell membranes also a precursor for which all other cell membranes are synthesized
    • Synthesized in the liver
  • hormones
nucleic acids
Nucleic Acids
  • Genes- units of DNA
  • Nucleic acids- polymers made of monomers called nucleotides

Roles of Nucleic Acids-

  • DNA
      • Genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents
  • RNA
      • Interacts with cell’s protein synthesizing machinery part of a protein
dna vs rna
DNA vs RNA

DNA

RNA

Double stranded

Deoxyribose sugar

Thymine

Single stranded

Ribose sugar

Uracil

nucleotides
Nucleotides
  • Structure:
2 families of nitrogenous bases
2 families of Nitrogenous Bases
  • Pyrimidines
    • Cytosine
    • Uracil
    • Thymine
  • Purine
    • Adenine
    • Guanine