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The First World War:. Who?. Central Powers:. Allies:. Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria. Russia France Serbia Great Britain Italy Japan United States (1917). The First World War:. Long term - 1. Imperialism 2. Militarism 3. Nationalism 4. Alliances. Why?.

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the first world war
The First World War:
  • Who?

Central Powers:

Allies:

Germany

Austria-Hungary

Ottoman Empire

Bulgaria

Russia

France

Serbia

Great Britain

Italy

Japan

United States (1917)

the first world war1
The First World War:

Long term -

1. Imperialism

2. Militarism

3. Nationalism

4. Alliances

  • Why?

Short term - Assassination of Franz Ferdinand of the Austro-Hungarian Empire

Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and his Wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg one hour before their deaths, June 28, 1914

the black hand
The Black Hand..
  • The main objective of the Black Hand was the creation, by means of violence, of a Greater Serbia.
  • Its stated aim was: "To realize the national ideal, the unification of all Serbs. This organization prefers terrorist action to cultural activities; it will therefore remain secret."
the spark that lit the fuse
The spark that lit the fuse….
  • The one event that started the Great War happened in the Balkans.
  • The Archduke Franz Ferdinand (Austria) was assassinated while visiting Serbia.
  • The Black Hand was responsible….
kaiser wilhelm ii
Kaiser Wilhelm II
  • Ruler of Germany
  • Autocrat
how did americans react
How did Americans React?

I. American citizens were divided. Many favored the Allies, due to ties of language, history and culture. But, many immigrants of German, Austrian, and Irish descent favored the Central Powers.

II. The U.S. economy boomed. Manufacturers and farmers were filling orders for food and war goods. Most of the trade was with the Allies.

III. Both the Allies and Central Powers waged a war of propaganda (ideas to help a cause) in America.

slide13

US IN 1914

  • Panama Canal was completed in August of 1914 just a week before WWI began in Europe.
  • Woodrow Wilson became President in 1912.
  • Americans were shocked by the outbreak of war but…………..it was in Europe.
  • US was officially NEUTRAL
neutrality
Neutrality
  • Neutrality was the stance taken by the majority of Americans towards the war. They felt that Europe was too far away and that its conflicts were not trustworthy. President Wilson also believed that all Americans needed to "act and speak in a spirit of neutrality."
what was the job of george creel during the war
What was the job of George Creel during the war?
  • His job was to sell America the war.
  • Creel tried to “whip” up support for Wilson’s ideas
  • Help US raise money to fight
slide19
Selective Service Act- Required all young men from age 21 to 30 to register for the military draft. 4 million men and women joined the armed forces.
slide20
Switching to a Wartime Economy- The War Industries Board told factories what to produce and how to divide up limited resources.
slide21
Liberty Bonds- By buying bonds, Americans were lending money to the Federal Government to pay for the war. They raised $21 Billion.
slide22
Women went to work- As men went to war in Europe, women replaced their jobs in factories. They also worked as police officers, mail-women, and military nurses.
why did the u s finally enter the war in 1917
Why did the U.S. Finally enter the War in 1917?

I. Submarine warfare angered the U.S.! German U-Boats torpedoed American ships trading with the Allies.

II. The Lusitania was a British passenger ship that was sunk by the Germans. 1200 people were killed, including 128 Americans.

slide27
III. Zimmerman Telegram

A. Britain intercepted the telegram. Germany tried to convince Mexico to declare war on the U.S. Mexico would receive part of the U.S. if they won the war.

IV. Russian Revolution

A. Czar Nicholas II was removed from power in Russia. The new government promised democratic reforms which made it easier for the U.S. to come into the war on Russia’s side.

slide29

RUSSIAN REVOLUTION

vs

Vladamir Lenin Czar Nicholas

Czar Nicholas and the Romanov Family would be overthrown by Lenin who eventually would start the first Communistic state……

what did it take to get the us involved
What did it take to get the US involved?
  • Zimmerman Note + the sinking of 4 unarmed American ships led to a declaration of war
  • (Lusitania, Sussex, City of Memphis, and Vigilancia)
slide31

AMERICAN EXPEDTIONARY FORCES

General John J. Pershing, commanding general of the AEF. Referred to as the Doughboys and Yanks. 2 million in France by Sept. 1918

slide32

When a British Army soldier was ordered to attack the enemy on the Western Front he carried a total of 30 kilograms (66 lbs) of equipment. This included a rifle, two mills grenades, 220 rounds of ammunition, a steel helmet, wire cutters, field dressing, entrenching tool, greatcoat, two sandbags, rolled ground sheet, water bottle, haversack, mess tin, towel, shaving kit, extra socks, message book and preserved food rations. The weight of the equipment made it difficult to move very fast across No Man's Land

slide33

Day after day we cut down stinking bandages and exposed wounds that destroyed the whole original plan of the body. One man had both buttocks blown off, one arm had been amputated at the elbow, and he had a host of smaller wounds from flying metal. Another lay propped on sphagnum moss to absorb the discharge from two large holes in each thigh

slide34

If you have never had trench feet described to you. I will tell you. Your feet swell to two or three times their normal size and go completely dead. You could stick a bayonet into them and not feel a thing. If you are fortunate enough not to lose your feet and the swelling begins to go down. It is then that the intolerable, indescribable agony begins. I have heard men cry and even scream with the pain and many had to have their feet and legs amputated

trench warfare
Trench Warfare
  • Central and Allied forces used deep ditches to defend their positions
  • Trenches stretched 400-500 miles across Western Europe
  • Trenches were cold, wet, and dirty
  • Diseases easily spread in the trenches
  • Trenches ranged from small holes to complex networks with rooms
u boats or submarines
U-boats or Submarines
  • Germany’s fleet of U-boats were the largest and most advanced
  • They attacked Allied shipping across the Atlantic
  • German attacks on Allied ships severely hurt the supply of weapons and ammunitions to the Allies
tanks
Tanks
  • The use of tanks were introduced during WWI
  • They replaced cavalry units (horses)
  • The first tanks were tough and could cause heavy damage
    • Especially trenches
  • They were also slow and hard to maneuver
slide42

Little Willie, with its Daimler engine, had track frames 12 feet long, weighed 14 tons and could carry a crew of three, at speeds of just over three miles. The speed dropped to less than 2 mph over rough ground and most importantly of all, was unable to cross broad trenches. Although the performance was disappointing, Ernest Swinton remained convinced that when modified, the tank would enable the Allies to defeat the Central Powers

machine guns
Machine Guns
  • Machine guns were introduced during WWI
  • They were used in the trenches and on airplanes
  • Allowed for rapid fire of bullets
slide46

The Lewis Gun, a light machine gun, was developed in the United States in 1911. At 12 kg it was far lighter than the Vickers Machine-Gun and in 1915 the British Army decided to purchase the gun for use on the Western Front. Another advantage of the Lewis is that six of these guns could be made in the time taken to produce one Vickers gun. Although too heavy for efficient portable use, it became the standard support weapon for the British infantry during the First World War

slide48

FlameThrowers

GrenadeLaunchers

poison gas
Poison Gas
  • Chemical warfare was introduced during WWI
  • Poison gases
    • Chlorine gas
    • Mustard gas
  • Poison gas would destroy the lungs
    • Killing the soldier slowly
  • Soldiers wore gas masks to protect themselves
the airplane
The Airplane
  • The use of airplanes in wartime was introduced during WWI
  • Originally, Allied and Central Powers used airplanes for spying
  • Machine guns were later added to shoot down enemy spies
slide55

Armistice

Why Important?It ended WWI on November 11, 1918.

On the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month, hostilities officially ended.

November 1919: Armistice Day

June 1954: Veteran’s Day

slide56

Fourteen Points

What? President Wilson’s Plan for after the war

  • Fourteen promises, including freedom of the seas & a League of Nations to work for peace

President Woodrow Wilson

peace after wwi
Peace After WWI
  • Wilson’s Peace Plan- the “Fourteen Points”

A. Wilson did not want to punish Germany- but

France and Britain did.

B. “Peace without Victory”

1. end of secret alliances

2. freedom of the seas

3. self-determination

4. *LEAGUE OF NATIONS*

C. League of Nations- to settle world disputes

the big four leaders of world war i
The Big Four Leaders of World War I
  • The Big Four Leaders gathered at Versailles in January 1919 to write a formal treaty for peace.
david lloyd george
David Lloyd George
  • David Lloyd George was the British Prime Minister who represented the United Kingdom. During their talks, George put the needs of his own nation first.
vittorio orlando
Vittorio Orlando
  • Vittorio Orlando, the Italian Prime Minister, also put the needs of his nation first during talks.
georges clemenceau
Georges Clemenceau
  • Georges Clemenceau, the French Premier, wanted to make Germany pay for the entire cost of the war since most of the fighting took place on French soil.
slide62
II. Conflicting Goals- the final Peace Treaty

A. France and England got what they wanted-

Germany was punished

B. Treaty of Versailles

1. Germany forced to take full responsibility of

the war.

2. Germany pays $300 Billion in reparations

3. limited size of German army

4. Germany loses land to France

5. Germany loses colonies

6. League of Nations was created

slide63
III. U.S. rejects the Treaty

A. Isolationists were people who wanted to stay out

of world affairs- they opposed the League of

Nations.

B. The Senate rejected the Versailles Treaty

because they feared it would bring the U.S. into

future European conflicts.

battle of verdun
Battle of Verdun
  • The longest and one of the bloodiest engagements of World War I. February 1916 – December 1916
  • Two million men were engaged.
  • The intention of the Germans had been a battle of attrition in which they hoped to bleed the French army white.
  • In the end, they sustained almost as many casualties as the French; an estimated 328,000 to the French 348,000.
slide66

LEADERS AND HEROES OF WWI

Franz Ferdinand Kaiser Wilhem President Wilson Czar Nicholas Gen. John J. Pershing

Sen. Henry Lodge Sergeant Alvin York Eddie Baron Manfred Valadir Lenin Rickenbacker von Richthofen

Central Powers

Allied Powers