The First World War:. Who?. Central Powers:. Allies:. Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria. Russia France Serbia Great Britain Italy Japan United States (1917). The First World War:. Long term - 1. Imperialism 2. Militarism 3. Nationalism 4. Alliances. Why?.
United States (1917)
Long term -
Short term - Assassination of Franz Ferdinand of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and his Wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg one hour before their deaths, June 28, 1914
I. American citizens were divided. Many favored the Allies, due to ties of language, history and culture. But, many immigrants of German, Austrian, and Irish descent favored the Central Powers.
II. The U.S. economy boomed. Manufacturers and farmers were filling orders for food and war goods. Most of the trade was with the Allies.
III. Both the Allies and Central Powers waged a war of propaganda (ideas to help a cause) in America.
I. Submarine warfare angered the U.S.! German U-Boats torpedoed American ships trading with the Allies.
II. The Lusitania was a British passenger ship that was sunk by the Germans. 1200 people were killed, including 128 Americans.
A. Britain intercepted the telegram. Germany tried to convince Mexico to declare war on the U.S. Mexico would receive part of the U.S. if they won the war.
IV. Russian Revolution
A. Czar Nicholas II was removed from power in Russia. The new government promised democratic reforms which made it easier for the U.S. to come into the war on Russia’s side.
Vladamir Lenin Czar Nicholas
Czar Nicholas and the Romanov Family would be overthrown by Lenin who eventually would start the first Communistic state……
General John J. Pershing, commanding general of the AEF. Referred to as the Doughboys and Yanks. 2 million in France by Sept. 1918
When a British Army soldier was ordered to attack the enemy on the Western Front he carried a total of 30 kilograms (66 lbs) of equipment. This included a rifle, two mills grenades, 220 rounds of ammunition, a steel helmet, wire cutters, field dressing, entrenching tool, greatcoat, two sandbags, rolled ground sheet, water bottle, haversack, mess tin, towel, shaving kit, extra socks, message book and preserved food rations. The weight of the equipment made it difficult to move very fast across No Man's Land
Day after day we cut down stinking bandages and exposed wounds that destroyed the whole original plan of the body. One man had both buttocks blown off, one arm had been amputated at the elbow, and he had a host of smaller wounds from flying metal. Another lay propped on sphagnum moss to absorb the discharge from two large holes in each thigh
If you have never had trench feet described to you. I will tell you. Your feet swell to two or three times their normal size and go completely dead. You could stick a bayonet into them and not feel a thing. If you are fortunate enough not to lose your feet and the swelling begins to go down. It is then that the intolerable, indescribable agony begins. I have heard men cry and even scream with the pain and many had to have their feet and legs amputated
Little Willie, with its Daimler engine, had track frames 12 feet long, weighed 14 tons and could carry a crew of three, at speeds of just over three miles. The speed dropped to less than 2 mph over rough ground and most importantly of all, was unable to cross broad trenches. Although the performance was disappointing, Ernest Swinton remained convinced that when modified, the tank would enable the Allies to defeat the Central Powers
The Lewis Gun, a light machine gun, was developed in the United States in 1911. At 12 kg it was far lighter than the Vickers Machine-Gun and in 1915 the British Army decided to purchase the gun for use on the Western Front. Another advantage of the Lewis is that six of these guns could be made in the time taken to produce one Vickers gun. Although too heavy for efficient portable use, it became the standard support weapon for the British infantry during the First World War
Why Important?It ended WWI on November 11, 1918.
On the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month, hostilities officially ended.
November 1919: Armistice Day
June 1954: Veteran’s Day
What? President Wilson’s Plan for after the war
President Woodrow Wilson
A. Wilson did not want to punish Germany- but
France and Britain did.
B. “Peace without Victory”
1. end of secret alliances
2. freedom of the seas
4. *LEAGUE OF NATIONS*
C. League of Nations- to settle world disputes
A. France and England got what they wanted-
Germany was punished
B. Treaty of Versailles
1. Germany forced to take full responsibility of
2. Germany pays $300 Billion in reparations
3. limited size of German army
4. Germany loses land to France
5. Germany loses colonies
6. League of Nations was created
A. Isolationists were people who wanted to stay out
of world affairs- they opposed the League of
B. The Senate rejected the Versailles Treaty
because they feared it would bring the U.S. into
future European conflicts.
Franz Ferdinand Kaiser Wilhem President Wilson Czar Nicholas Gen. John J. Pershing
Sen. Henry Lodge Sergeant Alvin York Eddie Baron Manfred Valadir Lenin Rickenbacker von Richthofen