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Diagnostic Testing. Diagnostic Testing. A diagnostic test is any kind of medical test performed to aid in the diagnosis or detection of disease. to diagnose diseases to measure the progress or recovery from disease to confirm that a person is free from disease Types Invasive

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Diagnostic Testing


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diagnostic testing1
Diagnostic Testing
  • A diagnostic test is any kind of medical test performed to aid in the diagnosis or detection of disease.
      • to diagnose diseases
      • to measure the progress or recovery from disease
      • to confirm that a person is free from disease
  • Types
      • Invasive
      • Minimally-invasive
      • Non-invasive
diagnostic testing2
Diagnostic Testing
  • Other characteristics of tests include:
  • sensitivity
  • specificity
  • positive predictive value
  • negative predictive value
  • false positive
  • false negative
test options
Test options
  • Consulting room tests
      • auscultation
      • height and girth
      • blood pressure
      • pulse
      • breath tests
      • reflex tests
      • eye examination
      • ophthalmoscopy
      • hearing test
      • digital rectal examination
      • vaginal exam
testing options
Requiring laboratory analysis

Urine tests

Stool tests

Hair tests

Saliva tests

Blood tests

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)

Complete blood count (CBC)

Comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP)

Arterial blood gas (ABG)

DNA tests

invasive examinations

biopsies

lumbar puncture

Requiring microscopy

Pap smears

Testing options
testing options1
Testing options
  • Requiring elaborate medical equipment
  • X-rays
    • barium enema
    • intravenous pyelogram (IVP test)
  • ultrasound scans
  • electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
  • electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • computer aided tomography (CAT) scans
  • positron emission tomography (PET)
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • endoscopy
    • colonoscopy
    • cystoscopy
    • sigmoidoscopy
    • colposcopy
  • blood test
x ray
X-Ray
  • “plain films”
  • Bone abnormalities – Fx, dislocation, joint spaces
  • Ectopic bone formation in soft tissue
  • Bone tumors
arthrogram
Arthrogram
  • X-ray after an injection of a dye
  • Shows the disruption of soft tissue

or loose bodies in the joint

  • Uses a Fluoroscope
fluoroscopy
Fluoroscopy
  • Provides immediate projection of X-ray image on screen for viewing
  • Common for GI tract testing, cardiac catheterization, hip/shoulder injections
  • Portable x-ray in pros & D-I
computed tomography
Computed Tomography
  • Thin , fan shaped x-ray beam
  • Cross section view if tissue
  • Many angles
  • Visual image on a computer
positron emission tomography pet
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
  • Nuclear medicine imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image of functional processes in the body.
  • Detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radionuclide (tracer)
bone scan
Bone Scan
  • IV – radioactive tracer
  • Bony lesions with inflammation will “take-up” more dye (Bone stress sites)
magnetic resonance imaging
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Electromagnets circle the body
  • Field up to 600,000x as strong as earth
  • Magnet aligns hydrogen atom in water molecules. When turned off, atoms continue to spin, emitting an energy that is detected by the computer.
  • Hydrogen atoms in different tissues spin at different rates
ultrasonography
Ultrasonography
  • Used to view the location of, alignment of and measure the size of organs/tissue
  • Measures the reflection or transmission of high-frequency ultrasound waves
  • Computer calculates the distance from the

sound-reflecting/absorbing surface and creates

a two-dimensional image

echocardiography
Echocardiography
  • Uses ultrasound to produce image of cardiac structure/function
  • Can see the valves & dimensions of the 4 chamber
electroencephalography
Electroencephalography
  • EEG
  • Records electrical potentials produced in the brain
  • Changes in brain wave patterns
electromyography
Electromyography
  • Graphic recording of muscle contractions & the amt of electrical activity generated in a muscle
  • EMG
  • Surface or needle electrodes
  • Motor unit potentials can be observed on

a oscilloscope screen or from a graphic

recording (electromyogram)

arteriography
Arteriography
  • Catheter is inserted into specific vessel
  • Contrast is injected & radiographs are taken
  • Blockage/Aneurysm
electrocardiography
Electrocardiography
  • ECG/EKG
  • Electrical activity of the heart
  • Impulse formation, conduction, depolarization & repolarization of the atria & ventricles follows a normal pattern
nerve conduction velocity
Nerve Conduction Velocity
  • Conduction velocity of nerves
  • Apply stimulus to a peripheral nerve and measure the speed at which the muscle action occurs
  • Nerve compression/nerve fx
synovial fluid analysis
Synovial Fluid Analysis
  • Used to detect the reason for an joint effusion, increase ROM, by decreasing joint effusion
  • Not commonly used anymore
  • Looked for blood & infections
serum testing
Serum Testing
  • CBC
  • Screen for numerous condtions
    • Anemia, diabetes, infection, monitor kidney function
  • RBC count, hemoglobin levels, hematocrit, WBC count, platelet count, cholesterol, etc
urinalysis
Urinalysis
  • UA
  • Specific gravity, pH, ketones, hemoglobin, protein, nitrates, WBC, drugs, hormones, electrolytes, glucose, RBC
  • Color, odor, volume
urinalysis procedure
Urinalysis - Procedure
  • Specimen collection
    • Clear, clean container
    • Fresh urine……if longer than 1 hr, put in frig
    • Mid stream urine
  • Testing procedures
    • Briefly (< 1 sec) dip test strip into urine
    • Draw the edge of the strip along the rim to remove excess urine
    • Turn strip on its side and tab on a paper towel
    • After appropriate time (1 min), compare strip to side of container….if Leukocytes (+), reread @ 2 mins
urinalysis testing for
Urinalysis – Testing for
  • Specific Gravity: Ability of kidneys to concentrate and dilute fluids; hydration levels
  • pH: Refers to how acidic or alkaline the urine is. Acidic urine is found in cases of diabetes & dehydration. Alkaline urine is a sign of a urinary tract infection or kidney disease
  • Glucose: Diabetes
  • Hemoglobin: Kidney disease or after intense exercise
  • Protein: Kidney disease
  • Nitrates: Infection
  • Ketones: Eating disorder, fasting
  • Leukocytes: Infection
urinalysis normal
Urinalysis - Normal
  • Specific Gravity: 1.016 – 1.022
  • pH: 5-9…..morning urine
  • Glucosuria……none
  • Proteinuria……up to 30mg/dL
  • Hematuria…….up to 5Ery/uL is okay
  • Leukocytes…...none
  • Ketones……….none
  • Nitrates……….none
urinalysis1
Urinalysis
  • Color: Normal – pale yellow
    • Dark –dehydrated
    • Red/brownish – blood, hemoglobin, myoglobin, bilirubin
    • Cloudy/milky – infection
  • Odor:
    • Foul/strong - infection