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Reason/Logic #3. Classification Statistics Counterclaims Paradigms. Classification . Allows us to make generalizations about a group. Example: Mammals give birth to live young; they do not hatch from external eggs. . Classify these items in way that is useful:. Monkey Microscope Salad

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reason logic 3

Reason/Logic #3





  • Allows us to make generalizations about a group.

Example: Mammals give birth to live young; they do not hatch from external eggs.

classify these items in way that is useful
Classify these items in way that is useful:
  • Monkey
  • Microscope
  • Salad
  • Hairball
  • Car
  • Motorcycle
  • Coffee
  • Chocolate milk
  • Marathon
  • Giraffe
  • Beetle
  • Earphones
  • Rice
  • Iguana
  • Parking meter
  • Daisy

Classifications are not permanent or universal!

They can have connotations that are good and bad.

Are generally considered useful by a community of knowers.

We use classification in all ways/areas of knowing—it relies heavily on language.

A rose by any other name would smell as sweet.

SHAKESPEARE was a logician!


How do we classify people? Brainstorm… Think of some with bad connotations and good connotations.

Explore prejudices and stereotypes that you might have.

classifications change
Classifications change…

When classification relies on definition, the definition must change as well.

For example, the definition of “human” used to include the phrase “white person”. Umm….


What are the descriptors that go along with some classifications?

  • What emotions are included?
  • What are the difficulties of changing historical classifications?

There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics. –Mark Twain


Strengths and limitations to statistical evidence:

S. Track changes, progress, regress, provide efficient generalized information.

L. Connotations can affect emotions, analogical reasoning, enables correlation that many take as causation (as in medical research)


Paradox of cartography applies—

there is no perfect representation.

In what areas of knowledge could statistics represent accuracy more than others?


What are some connotations of statistics?

  • How do statistics affect empathy?
  • How do statistics affect the human-ness of some knowledge?
  • What is the difference between an argument and a fight?

Counter-argument: arguing with someone else’s conclusions.

  • Counterclaim: arguing with your own conclusions.

WHY would you do this?


…because addressing weaknesses in your own argument strengthens it, shows you’ve considered your chain of reasoning and cannot be taken by surprise by someone else’s counter-arguments.

5 rules of negation
5 Rules of Negation
  • P 70 of packet

Defined: a set of interrelated ideas for making sense of one or more aspects of reality.

(See page 180 for examples of paradigms)

It is essential to question our own paradigms; they can trap us into narrow and limited ways of looking at the world.

four master paradigms
Four Master Paradigms
  • Deductive systems
  • Scientific theory
  • Narrative
  • Style
  • See page 180-181 for examples
review the four types of propositions
Review the four types of propositions
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • Shifting a paradigm (changing a perspective) is a matter of arguing propositions.

Why would you want to shift a paradigm?

What could inspire a paradigm shift?

test and talk
Test and talk

Logic and Reason…Is it a straight path?

A school board requires new teachers to agree not to join a union.

A. If an employer is under no duty to an employee he may stipulate any conditions he wants as a condition of employment.

The school board is under no duty to prospective teachers.

Therefore the school board may stipulate any condition it pleases.

B. All unreasonable discriminations in contracts of public employment are illegal.

The rule forbidding a teacher to join a union is unreasonable discrimination.

Therefore the rule is illegal.

Which solution is more logical? How would you solve this dilemma? What reasoning would you use?