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Lecture 10 New Developments in XML: MathML, Namespaces, RDF. CS 502: Computing Methods for Digital Libraries. Administration. Net Library: Comments, feedback, experience -- to John Saylor CDs for rebuilding laptop software: available in Upson 308 Change to schedule:

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lecture 10 new developments in xml mathml namespaces rdf
Lecture 10

New Developments in XML:

MathML, Namespaces, RDF

CS 502: Computing Methods for Digital Libraries

administration
Administration
  • Net Library:
  • Comments, feedback, experience -- to John Saylor
  • CDs for rebuilding laptop software: available in Upson 308
  • Change to schedule:
  • Office hours -- Wednesday
  • Lecture on March 14
  • Mid-term examination:
  • Wednesday, March 8, 7:30 to 8:30
mathml
MathML
  • Objectives:
  • Encode mathematical material for teaching and scientific communication at all levels
  • Encode both mathematical notation and mathematical meaning
  • Facilitate conversion to and from other math formats, both presentational and semantic. e.g., TeX
  • Be suitable for a wide range of output formats, including Braille
  • Provide for extensibility
  • Be human legible, and simple for software to generate and process
  • Intended for use with both HTML and XML
presentation and content markup
Presentation and Content Markup

Example:a + b

Presentation:

<mrow>

<mi>a</mi>

<mo>+</mo>

<mi>b</mi>

</mrow>

Content:

<apply>

<plus/>

<ci>a</ci>

<ci>b</ci>

</apply>

presentation and content markup1
Presentation and Content Markup

Example: (a + b)2

Presentation:

<msup>

<mfenced>

<mrow>

<mi>a</mi>

<mo>+</mo>

<mi>b</mi>

</mrow>

</mfenced>

<mn>2</mn>

</msup>

Content:

<apply>

<power/>

<apply>

<plus/>

<ci>a</ci>

<ci>b</ci>

</apply>

<cn>2</cn>

</apply>

annotations
Annotations

t

dx

x

0

<apply>

<int/>

<bvar><ci>x</ci></bvar>

<lowlimit><cn>0</cn></lowlimit>

<uplimit><ci>t</ci></uplimit>

<apply>

<divide/>

<cn>1</cn>

<ci>x</ci>

</apply>

</apply>

Content

annotations1
Annotations

t

dx

x

0

<mrow>

<msubsup>

<mo>&int;</mo>

<mn>0</mn>

<mi>t</mi>

</msubsup>

<mfrac>

<mrow>

<mo>&dd;</mo>

<mi>x</mi>

</mrow>

<mi>x</mi>

</mfrac>

</mrow>

Presentation

annotations2
Annotations

<semantics>

Content encoding

<annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Presentation">

Presentation encoding

</annotation-xml>

</semantics>

xml namespaces
XML Namespaces
  • Namespaces:
  • Allow those who publish XML to explicitly indicate where their information is coming from
  • Avoids any confusion regarding the information's origin
using namespaces
Using Namespaces
  • Examples:
  • <bk:title>Cheaper by the Dozen</bk:title>
  • <isbn:number>1568491379</isbn:number>
  • The tag consists of two parts:
  • namespace (in red)
  • name within namespace (in blue)
specifying namespaces
Specifying Namespaces

Example 1

<xhtml xmlns = "http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">

....

</xhtml>

specifying namespaces1
Specifying Namespaces

Example 2

<?xml version="1.0"?>

<!-- both namespace prefixes are available throughout -->

<bk:book xmlns:bk = "http://loc.gov:books"

xmlns:isbn = "urn:ISBN:0-395-36341-6">

<bk:title>Cheaper by the Dozen</bk:title>

<isbn:number>1568491379</isbn:number>

</bk:book>

resource descriptions as graphs
Resource Descriptions as Graphs

"Shakespeare is the author of the play Hamlet."

creator

Hamlet

Shakespeare

type

play

slide14

RDF: Metadata Schemes

    • "Shakespeare is the author of the play Hamlet."
    • In the Dublin Core metadata scheme, this can be represented as:
    • ResourceProperty-typeValue
    • Hamlet ---> creator ---> Shakespeare
    • ---> type ---> play
  • A different metadata scheme, might use the term author in
  • place of creator, and the term type with a different meaning.
use of namespace
Use of Namespace

"Shakespeare is the author of the play Hamlet."

dc:creator

Hamlet

Shakespeare

dc:type

play

rdf metadata schemes
RDF: Metadata Schemes
  • Define a namespace for the metadata scheme
  • Basic XML
  • <creator>Shakespeare</creator>
  • <type>play</type>
  • With dc namespace
  • <dc:creator>Shakespeare</dc:creator>
  • <dc:type>play</dc:type>
rdf identifying resources
RDF: Identifying Resources
  • Suppose that Hamlet is referenced by the URL:
  • "http://hamlet.org/"
  • <rdf:description rdf:about = "http://hamlet.org/">
  • ..........
  • </rdf:description>
rdf full record
RDF: Full Record
  • Full RDF record, with XML mark-up:
  • <rdf:rdf>
  • <rdf:description rdf:about = "http://hamlet.org/">
  • <dc:creator>Shakespeare</dc:creator>
  • <dc:type>play</dc:type>
  • </rdf:description>
  • </rdf:rdf>
rdf namespace information
RDF: Namespace Information
    • Full RDF record, with Namespace Definitions:
  • <rdf xmlns = “http://www.w3.org/TR/WD-rdf-syntax#”
  • xmlns:dc = “http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.0/”>
    • <rdf:description rdf:about = "http://hamlet.org/">
    • <dc:creator>Shakespeare</dc:creator>
    • <dc:type>play</dc:type>
    • </rdf:description>
    • </rdf>
complexity v acceptance
Complexity v. Acceptance
  • Markup
  • SGML was slow to gain acceptance because it is complex
  • HTML and the web gained acceptance because they were simple
  • XML is gaining acceptance steadily for structural mark-up, but has a long way to go
  • Style sheets
  • DSSSL has not been accepted because of complexity
  • CSS and XSL are slowly gaining acceptance, but have a long way to go
complexity v acceptance1
Complexity v. Acceptance
  • Mathematics:
  • MathML is complex but mathematics is complex. It may succeed.
  • Metadata markup:
  • XML is becoming the standard for metadata. It is simple and intuitive.
  • RDF adds functionality, but a lot more complexity.
  • Namespaces:
  • Namespaces are a simple concept, but the notation adds a lot of complexity