Research in Nursing: Evidence Based Practice Associate Professor Dianne Roy – 12 August 2014 firstname.lastname@example.org
Session Outline • Evidence based practice • Research • Identifying research reports • Types of literature • Research articles • Scholarly opinion articles • Finding research
Evidence Based Practice • “the integration of the best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values” (Sackett and others, 2000, as cited in White, 2013, p. 10) • A competency requirement for registered nurses in NZ • Evidence based decision making is fundamental to providing high quality care to clients • Informed by an evaluation of the available evidence • An active process involving: • Recognised information need • Forming a focused clinical question • Searching for most appropriate evidence • Critically appraising the retrieved evidence • Incorporating the evidence into action/practice • Evaluating the effects • (See McCormack & Crisp, 2013; Thompson et al., 2004)
Research • “A systematic process used to confirm and refine existing knowledge and to build new knowledge” (Usher & Mills, 2012, p. 11). • Research knowledge sits alongside other forms of knowledge in guiding nursing practice: • Tradition and custom • Authority • Trial and error • Personal experience • Intuition • Reasoning (Review: Usher & Mills, 2012, pp. 7-12)
Linking the domains of research, knowledge, and evidence-based practise • (Source: Usher & Mills, 2012, p. 6)
“Research must be critically read and evaluated, as well as aligned with other forms of professional evidence before it can be implemented and practice changed” (Schneider & Whitehead, 2007, p. 5). • So what does research look like? • How do we access research?
Types of Literature • News items • Commentaries • Scholarly opinion article • Research report/article • Systematic review • The type of article and the journal editorial policy dictates what an article looks like • Let’s compare: • ScholarlyQuantitativeQualitative
Recognising Research Articles • Know the parts of a journal article • Abstract - the first clue lies here, but you can be fooled • Introduction/background • Literature review • Aim of the study/research question • Study design • Ethical considerations • Sample/participants • Data collection • Data analysis • Findings/results • Discussion • Summary/conclusions ScholarlyQuantitativeQualitative
How do we find research articles? • Hard copy – journal holdings (Unitec Library) • Databases – e.g. Ebsco > CINAHL, Medline etc. • Specialist data bases (accessed through Unitec Library database list) • Joanna Briggs – see example • Cochrane Collaboration – access example • Websites – check quality of information: • Trusted websites • Origin (.com, .org, .govt, .ac or .edu) (See, Fitzgerald & Stokes, 2012; Ribbons, 2012 )
References Fitzgerald, L., & Stokes, J. (2012). Using library resources: What, when and how! In S. Borbasi & D. Jackson (Eds.), Navigating the maze of research: Enhancing nursing and midwifery practice (3rd ed., pp. 27-43). Chatswood, NSW: Mosby Elsevier. Lee, K. (2013). Student and infection prevention and control nurses’ hand hygiene decision making in simulated clinical scenarios: A qualitative research study of hand washing, gel and glove use choices. Journal of Infection Prevention, 14(3), 96-103. doi: 10.1177/1757177413484784 McCormack, B., & Crisp, J. (2013). Critical inquiry and practice development. In J. Crisp, C. Taylor, C. Douglas & G. Rebeiro (Eds.), Potter and Perry's Fundamentals of Nursing (4th Australian ed., pp. 55-71). Chatswood, NSW: Elsevier Australia. Osborne, S. (2013). Infection control. In J. Crisp, C. Taylor, C. Douglas & G. Rebeiro (Eds.), Potter and Perry's Fundamentals of Nursing (4th Australian ed., pp. 703-755). Chatswood, NSW: Elsevier Australia. Patrick, M., & Van Wicklin, S. A. (2012). Implementing AORN recommended practices for hand hygiene. AORN Journal, 95(4), 492-509. doi: 10.1016/j.aorn.2012.01.019 Ribbons, B. (2012). Navigating the net: A source of nursing and midwifery knowledge. In S. Borbasi & D. Jackson (Eds.), Navigating the maze of research: Enhancing nursing and midwifery practice (3rd ed., pp. 45-78). Chatswood, NSW: Mosby Elsevier. Thompson, C., Cullum, N., McCaughan, D., Sheldon, T., & Raynor, P. (2004). Nurses, information use, and clinical decision making: The real world potential for evidence-based decisions in nursing. Evidence Based Nursing, 7(3), 68-72. doi: 10.1136/ebn.7.3.68 Usher, K., & Mills, J. (2012). Introduction to nursing and midwifery research. In S. Borbasi & D. Jackson (Eds.), Navigating the maze of research: Enhancing nursing and midwifery practice (3rd ed., pp. 3-26). Chatswood, NSW: Mosby Elsevier. van De Mortel, T. F., Kermode, S., Progano, T., & Sansoni, J. (2012). A comparison of the hand hygiene knowledge, beliefs and practices of Italian nursing and medical students. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68(3), 569-579. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05758.x White, J. (2013). Nursing today. In J. Crisp, C. Taylor, C. Douglas & G. Rebeiro (Eds.), Potter and Perry's Fundamentals of Nursing (4th Australian ed., pp. 2-18). Chatswood, NSW: Elsevier Australia.