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  1. LEGO Basics - 1 American Heritage Dictionary: “A mechanical device capable of performing a variety of complex human tasks on command or by being programmed.” Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary: “ A machine under computer control capable of performing tasks automatically.” Oxford Dictionary: “ A machine capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically, especially one controlled by a computer.” Definitions of Robot: While there is no universally accepted definition, the following points cover the majority of robots. • A robot is artificial; does not occur naturally • It is controlled by a computer • It can sense the surrounding environment • It can perform actions

  2. LEGO Basics - 2 Is a washing machine a robot? It is artificial Modern washers are controlled by minature computers inside They can sense when the lid is open They can movements like spinning clothes back and forth Despite these requirements sometimes difficult to to categorize a Robot - What about railroad traffic booms at grade crossings? They are are artificial They are controlled by computers They can sense when a train is approaching They can raise and lower boom gates A robot is artificial; does not occur naturally

  3. They are generally good at doing what we commonly call the 3D’s: LEGO Basics - 3 • Dull tasks – can perform repetitive tasks accurately time after time; in an industrial setting will perform simple tasks more quickly than humans - This leads to greater productivity and better quality control ; they can pick up and manipulate little fragile items and can stop within a human hair width. [1st Industrial robot was used in a New Jersey auto assembly print picking up hot molds] • Dirty Tasks – can clean and mop up floors; clean out gutters and snake through sewer pipes Why have robots?: • Dangerous tasks – Can operate in unsafe areas (radioactive, poisonous atmosphere, bomb detection and removal, underwater ex: the BP oil spill, Mars Rover, search and rescue, locate victims in disaster areas ex: mine cave ins, earth quakes Right now they are being used in Japan to inside damaged nuclear power plants to assess damage

  4. LEGO Basics - 4 • Medical robots allow doctors to perform surgery on patients remotely • Exploratory – Mars and Lunar rovers • Military – predator drones, robotic mule (Big Dog) • Training - simulators In addition, robots have been used in amazing high tech applications:

  5. The main Components are LEGO Basics - 4 • Sensors (sensing) • Are used to feel the environment. Sensors can detect sound, light, temperature, contact, infrared signals . Can also sense objects using ultrasonic sensors. • Computation (planning) • Sensors are classed as input; they take information and input it to the robot’s brain or computation component • Consists of an onboard computer used to process information coming from the sensors. This input generates actions to be performed in the output or actuators A Robot must be able to – Sense – Plan & Act : • Actuator (act) • The moving parts. May be motors in the wheels, or engines used for lifting. Also include lights and speakers, hydraulic lifters and pneumatic cylinders information Sensors Computation information Actuators path of information flow in a robot

  6. LEGO Basics - 5 The term Robot was first used by Czech writer Karel Capek (1920) in his play R.U.R. 9Rossums Universal Robots). It came from the czech word ‘robota’ - which means – forced work, slave or servitude. Capek credits his brother Josef as the true inventor of the word The first Industrial robot was developed by in 1950 with George Devol’s Unimate robot. This robot was capable of lifting hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stacking. The first Unimate was sold to General Motors for an assembly plant in New Jersey Interesting facts

  7. LEGO Basics - 5 The term Robot was first used by Czech writer Karel Capek (1920) in his play R.U.R. 9Rossums Universal Robots). It came from the czech word ‘robota’ - which means – forced work, slave or servitude. Capek credits his brother Josef as the true inventor of the word The first Industrial robot was developed by in 1950 with George Devol’s Unimate robot. This robot was capable of lifting hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stacking. The first Unimate was sold to General Motors for an assembly plant in New Jersey Interesting facts

  8. LEGO Basics Sensors - 5 Without sensors a robot is just a machine. Robots need sensors to determine what is happening. • A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into an electrical signal which can be read by the robot. • The LEGO has four external sensors and one internal sensor. The external sensors are: - Sound - Touch - Ultrasonic - Light The internal sensor is the rotation sensor built into each motor • The external sensors connect to the NXT brick through the four input ports numbered 1 thru 4 located on the bottom.

  9. LEGO Basics – Sound Sensor - 5 The Sound Sensor can detect the decibel level: the softness or loudness of a sound. It detects both dB and dBA: • dBA: The sounds human ears are able to hear. • dB: All actual sounds, including too high or low for the human ear to hear. • Connects to Port 2 (Default location) • Sound Sensor readings are displayed in percentages, for example 4-5 % silent room 5-10% conversation a few feet away 10-30% normal conversation close to sensor 30-100% shouting, loud music, • Sound Sensor readings are displayed in percentages, * Ranges assume a distance of 1 meter away. Sound ranges are used as trigger points, the robot is programmed to respond to a reading above or below the trigger point.bove

  10. LEGO Basics – Light Sensor - 5 The Light enables robot to distinguish between light and darkness, read light intensiity in a room, and measure light intensity on colored surfaces. • dBA: The sounds human ears are able to hear. • dB: All actual sounds, including too high or low for the human ear to hear. • Connects to Port 3 (Default location) • If “Generate Light” is checked, the light sensor will turn on its own small light source and detect this light if it is reflected back to it. This function is especially useful in difficult lighting conditions like very bright rooms. The function also allows the light sensor to serve as a short-distance range finder. * Readings are in percentages of the range