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EMERGING FOODBORNE PATHOGENS. Prof. Dr. İrfan EROL , DVM, Ph.D. Turkish Representative of World Vet. Assoc. Department of Food Hygiene and Technology School of Veterinary Medicine Ankara University.

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emerging foodborne pathogens


Prof.Dr. İrfan EROL, DVM, Ph.D. Turkish Representative of World Vet. Assoc.

Department of Food Hygiene and TechnologySchool of Veterinary MedicineAnkara University

Despite advances in hygiene, consumer knowledge, food treatment and processing, foodborne diseases mediated by pathogenic microorganisms or microbial toxins still represent a significant treatto public health worldwide.
Globally, the WHO has estimated that approximately 1.5 billion episodes of diarrhea and more than 3 million deaths occurred in children under 5 years of age, and a significant proportion of these results from consumption of food mainly food of animal origin with microbial pathogens and toxins
emerging reemerging zoonotic diseases
Emerging & Reemerging Zoonotic Diseases
  • 60 % of the human pathogens are zoonotic
  • 75 % of emerging zoonotic
emerging foodborne pathogens5
Emerging Foodborne Pathogens
  • Definition:

those causing illnesses that have only recently appeared or been recognised in a population or that are well recognised but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range

emerging foodborne diseases
Emerging Foodborne Diseases
  • Appeared recently
  • Extended to new vehicles of transmission
  • Started to increase rapidly in incidence or geographic range
  • Been widespread for many years but only recently identified through new or increased knowledge or methods of identification and analysis of the disease agent
emerging foodborne diseases7
Emerging Foodborne Diseases
  • Pose a threat to all persons; no matter on age, sex, lifestyle or socio-economic status etc.
  • Feel pain and death
  • Economic impact
emerging foodborne diseases major trends
Emerging Foodborne DiseasesMajor trends
  • Changes in environment (technology, climate, etc)
  • Mass production and globalisation of food supply
  • Economic development
  • International travel and trade
  • Changing character of the population
  • Breakdown in public health
  • Lifestyle changes
  • Microbial adaptation
emerging foodborne pathogens9
Emerging Foodborne Pathogens
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Parasites
  • Prion
emerging foodborne bacteria
Salmonella (multidrug resistant strain)

Campylobacter jejuni

E. coli O157:H7

Listeria monocytogenes

S. aureus MRSA

Vibrio vulnificus

Yersinia enterocolitica

Arcobacter spp.

Mycobacterium paratuberculosis

Emerging foodborne bacteria
emerging foodborne viruses
Emerging foodborne viruses
  • Hepatit A and E
  • Norovirus
  • (Avian influenza, AI)
emerging foodborne parasites
Emerging foodborne parasites
  • Cryptosporidium parvum
  • Cyclospora cayetanensis
  • Anisakis spp.

Foodborne outbreaks 1996 - 2006

▼Cryptosporidiosis, Leptospirosis, Lyme borreliosis

●Brucellosis, E. coli 0157, Salmonellosis


Reference: WHO

WHO Surveillance Programme for Control of Foodborne Infections and Intoxications in Europe 8th Report 1999-2000 Country Reports: Turkey
salmonella serotype distribution in turkey erol et al 2009
Salmonella serotype distribution in Turkey(Erol et al., 2009)
  • S. Agona
  • S. Kentucky Spices
  • S. Bredeney
campylobacter jejuni
Campylobacter jejuni

Quinolone- and fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni in the United States, 1982–2001

thermophilic campylobacter spp in turkey meat n 270 cakmak and erol 2009

100 bp

500 bp

735 bp

Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in turkey meat (n=270)(Cakmak and Erol, 2009)
  • Thermophilic Camylobacter spp. 123 (45.5%)
    • C. jejuni 109 (40.3 %)
    • C. coli 11 ( 4.0 %)
    • Not typed 3
antibiotic resistance profile of c jejuni isolates in turkey meat cakmak and erol 2009
Antibiotic resistance profile of C. jejuni isolates in turkey meat (Cakmak and Erol, 2009)
E. coli O157:H7 isolates found in fecal samples of cattle and sheep at slaughter in Turkey (Erol et al., 2008)
Toxin profiles of 11 E. coli O157:H7 isolates within the PFGE groups in cattle in Turkey (Erol et al., 2008)
Contamination level of turkey meat with

L. monocytogenes is 17.8 % (32/180)

(Ayaz and Erol 2008)

l monocytogenes serotype distribution
L. monocytogenes serotype distribution
  • 44.9 % 1/2a
  • 37.2 % 4b
  • 9.0 % 1/2b
  • 9.0 % 1/2c
antibiotic resistance profiles of l monocytogenes in turkey meat n 24 ayaz and erol 2008
Antibiotic resistance profiles of L. monocytogenes in turkey meat (n:24) (Ayaz and Erol, 2008)
antibiotic resistance
Antibiotic resistance
  • It’s a global concern of the antibiotic resistance of major foodborne pathogens such as;

Salmonella TyphimuriumDT 104

Campylobacter spp.

Listeria monocytogenes

E. coli O157:H7

Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Enterococcus (VRE)


Foodborne Infections&Intoxications

Known/ Unknown







Suspectible Cases


No sample taken

Unnotified Cases

No medical



Risk management Epidemiological evaluation /

Risk assessment


control of foodborne disease
Control of Foodborne Disease
  • From farm to table approach
  • Implementation of GMP and HACCP
public health approach
Public Health Approach
  • Public health system
  • Surveillance
  • Epidemiology for earlier diagnosis
  • Early response to outbreaks
  • Provide to disease patterns changing
  • Public health lab. support for rapid and accurate diagnosis
  • Rapid communication links
  • Communication to public
  • Education on prevention and/or detection




factors contributing to the global incidence of foodborne disease
Factors contributing to the global incidence of foodborne disease
  • Poor sanitary conditions
  • Malnutrition
  • Changing demographics (increasing population of infants, elderly)
  • Inadequate public health infrastructure
  • Inadequate hygienic and technological conditions of food production
  • Inadequate cooking, reheating and storage conditions
  • Increasing tourism and international trade
  • Increasing animal movement and insufficient control of borders
  • Increasing international trade of animal and food
  • Inadequate legislation and official control system
  • Emerging/reemerging foodborne pathogens
  • Acquisition of virulence and antibiotic genes by nonpathogenic bacteria
  • Adaptation and enhanced survival of pathogens in food
  • Inadequate consumer education
trichinellosis outbreak in turkey
Trichinellosisoutbreak in Turkey
  • Although there is a religious restriction on pork meat consumption, in January 2004 there was a big trichinellosis outbreak occurred by consuming çiğ köfte (raw ground meat ball-traditional food) in Izmir
  • 542 people were affected and samples were found to be contaminated with T. britovi
one world one health owoh
One World One Health (OWOH)
  • The medical and veterinary professions have a common interest in many diseases, primarily zoonotic diseases such as BSE, SARS and, most recently, Avian Influenza (H5N1), have highlighted the need for interprofessional collaboration not just locally and nationally, but on a global scale.
one world one health owoh51
One World One Health (OWOH)
  • Improving animal and human health globally through collaboration among all the health sciences, especially between the veterinary and human medical professions to address critical needs.