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Stage 43 Grammar. More About Conditional Clauses. Study the following examples: Si illud dixisses , erravisses . If you had said that, you would have been wrong. Si filius meus viveret , non lugerem . If my son were living/alive, I would not be mourning.

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more about conditional clauses
More About Conditional Clauses
  • Study the following examples:
  • Si illuddixisses, erravisses.
  • If you had said that, you would have been wrong.
  • Si filiusmeusviveret, non lugerem.
  • If my son were living/alive, I would not be mourning.
  • Si respiciat, aliquidmirivideat.
  • If he were to look around, he would see something amazing.
more about conditional clauses1
More About Conditional Clauses
  • Each of these sentences is a conditional sentence containing a conditional clause introduced by si. In each sentence the main verb and the verb in the conditional clause are subjunctive. In the past and present (sentences 1 & 2), the subjunctive suggests that neither the condition nor its result really happened/happens.
  • The key to correct translation in English is getting the verb in the si clause correctly translated, e.g. “If you had said/if my son were alive/if he were to look around”. If this is correct, the rest of the sentence will flow correctly.
more about indirect speech
More About Indirect Speech
  • Study the following examples:
  • Dicotestemmentiri.
  • I say that the witness is lying.
  • Rogavimusquiscibumreliquumconsumpsisset.
  • We asked who had eaten the rest of the food.
  • Dux nuntiavitsociosnobissubventurosesse.
  • The leader announced that the our companions would come to our aid.
  • Each sentence contains:
  • A verb of speaking, asking, etc. (dico, rogavimus)
  • An indirect statement or direct question.

Notice that in each example, the verb of speaking/asking is placed at the beginning of the sentence.

more about indirect speech1
More About Indirect Speech
  • The main point is the need to read the sentence straight through before translating. The so-called rule, “FIRST FIND THE VERB” is usually less helpful than an instruction to NOTICE the verb of speaking, asking, etc. while reading through the sentence.
more about indirect speech2
More About Indirect Speech
  • Compare the preceding examples with the following that do not have the verb at the beginning of the sentence.
  • multosbarbarosdicimus in proeliocecidisse.
  • We say that many barbarians fell in the battle.
  • Quid princepscupiat, numquamscio.
  • I never know what the emperor wants.
  • Haruspexdeosnobisfavereaffirmavit.
  • The seer declared that the gods favored us.