Relocation and Dislocation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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relocation and dislocation n.
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Relocation and Dislocation

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  1. Relocation and Dislocation

  2. Internal Migration • Migration that occurs within a country’s borders. Examples/Reasons for internal vs. international: same language, familiar cultural aspects, shorter distances traveled

  3. INTERNAL MIGRATIONS • Two Types: • Intraregional • Interregional http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2008/12/17/u-s-migration-flows/

  4. Intraregional Migration • Intraregional migrations--people moving or being moved within one geographic realm (region) of a country • Current examples: • Rural to urban: • increases with development, ¾ of core countries population in urban areas • Urban to suburban: • lifestyle changes (babies) • Metropolitan to nonmetropolitan areas: • called counter-urbanization, increased technology allows people to work outside of the city

  5. Interregional Migrations • Interregional Migration-people moving or being moved from one geographic realm (region) to another within a country • From South • Current USA examples: • Movement North to South, and East to West • Net migration (immigrants-emigrants) Figures as of 2007 • South-(+1,419,000) • Northeast-(-915,000) • Midwest-(-533,000) • West-(+29,000) • refugees/evacuees from the Gulf Coast region to other parts of the United States • Rural to urban areas to find work

  6. Interregional Migrations • Current World examples: • To Brazil’s interior: Brasilia • to North in Italy, and North to South in the UK for Jobs • Islands of development are cities with foreign investment and jobs • West African coast • European colonies in SE Asia attracted Chinese

  7. External Migration • Movement across country borders • Also called International migration • Emigrant: one who migrates out of a country • Subtracts from total population • Immigrant: one who migrates into a country • Adds to total population

  8. Major Global Migration Flows From 1500 to 1950

  9. Global Migration Patterns • From less-developed Stage 2 countries into more-developed Stage 4 countries • 3 largest migration flows • Asia to Europe • Asia to North America • Latin America to North America • Net In Migration: North America, Europe, Oceania (more people moving in) • Net Out Migration: Asia, Latin America, Africa (more people moving out)

  10. US Immigration Patterns • Three main waves 1. Colonial America: 1607-1840 • European settlement- 2 million, mostly British • African slaves – 800, 000

  11. Immigration to the United States, 1820 to 2001

  12. US Immigration Patterns 2. 19th century (1840-1910) 3 European Peaks • 1840s and 1850s: -Northern and Western Europe (Ireland, Germany) • 1880s: -Northern and Western Europe (Ireland, Germany, Norway, Sweden) • 1900-1910: -Southern and Eastern Europe [Italy, Russia, Austria-Hungary (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine) ]

  13. Immigration to the United States, 1820 to 2001

  14. US Immigration Patterns 3. Second-half of 20th century (1950-2008) Less developed regions • Latin America: Mexico, Dominican Republic, El Salvador • Asia: China, Philippines, India, Vietnam

  15. Immigration to the United States, 1820 to 2001

  16. Immigration Policies • USA Quota Laws • Quota Act of 1921 and Origins Act of 1924: 2% of 1910 population • Immigration Act of 1965 • 1968: Hemisphere quotas • 1978: Global Quotas • Currently: Global Quota of 620, 000 with no more than 7% from each country • Major Exceptions: family reunification, employment, talented, refugees

  17. Immigration Policies • Brain Drain: large-scale emigration by talented people out of the periphery • Guest Workers: To Europe from Middle East and North Africa • Example: 750,000 Turks employed in Germany • Time-Contract workers: South and East Asian workers to Southeast Asia

  18. UN definition A person who has well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political group. UN reports 24 million refugees worldwide Is this accurate? What about refugees?

  19. International refugees: Those who have crossed one or more international borders and are encamped in a country other than their own Intranational refugees: Those who have abandoned their homes but not their homeland What about refugees?UN definitions

  20. It is difficult to identify refugees. • No mention of natural/enviromental disaster • UN must distinguish between refugees and voluntary migrants before granting asylum. • Three general characteristics, individual or aggregate (collectively): • Most refugees move without any more tangible property than they can carry or transport with them. • Most refugees make their first “step” on foot, by bicycle, wagon, or open boat. • Refugees move without the official documents that accompany channeled migrations.

  21. Regions of Dislocation • Sub-Saharan Africa • Several of the world’s largest refugee crises plagued Africa during the 1990s and early 21st century -8 million “official” refugees • Civil wars in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Angola, and Sudan • Hostilities between the Hutu and Tutsi tribes in Rwanda

  22. Other regions of dislocation… • North Africa and Southwest Asia • Israel and the displaced Arab populations that surround it • Exhibits qualities that are likely to generate additional refugee flow in the future • The Kurdish population following the Gulf War (1991) • Taliban rule in Afghanistan • Afghanistan after the Soviet invasion during the 1980s

  23. Regions of dislocation continued… • South Asia • Pakistan accommodated forced emigrants from Afghanistan • Major refugee problem stems from a civil war in Sri Lanka

  24. Regions of dislocation continued… • Southeast Asia • “Boat people” who fled communist rule in Vietnam • In the early 1990s, Cambodia generated the region’s largest refugee flow • Today--largest number of refugees come from Myanmar (Burma)

  25. Regions of dislocation continued… Europe • After the collapse of Yugoslavia, over 1 million were displaced • South America • Colombian illegal drug violence, especially in rural areas