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Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Building 111. Mike Holda Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (510) 486-6358 or (209) 835-8150, [email protected] or [email protected] LLNL Building 111. Originally designed as the Experimental Physics Building Built in 1966

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lawrence livermore national laboratory building 111

Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryBuilding 111

Mike Holda

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

(510) 486-6358 or (209) 835-8150,

[email protected] or [email protected]

llnl building 111
LLNL Building 111
  • Originally designed as the Experimental Physics Building
  • Built in 1966
  • Seven stories, 107,000 square feet
  • Now used as administrative offices & research support space
llnl building 111 original hvac and lighting equipment
LLNL Building 111Original HVAC and Lighting Equipment
  • Two 225 ton Carrier electric chillers
    • 1.0 + kW/ton efficiency, CFC-11 refrigerant
  • Two gas-fired hot water boilers for heating
  • Two constant volume air handling systems
    • For east wing, south wing & interior
    • Bypassed VAV air handlers and VFD motors
  • Fluorescent light fixtures with T-12 lamps
llnl building 111 project scenario
23-year-old inefficient chillers in need of overhaul

using CFC refrigerants, 1.0+ kW/ton

Poor air quality and building comfort

Air system was out of balance

Economizers stuck open

High temperature hot water reheat system with supply temperature reset (didn’t work)

Less efficient T-12 lamps

Lighting levels unnecessarily high in hallways

Substantial unoccupied time with lights left on

LLNL Building 111Project Scenario
llnl building 111 project challenges
LLNL Building 111Project Challenges
  • Fragmented funding for projects
    • In-House Energy Management funding for measures with simple paybacks of < 10 years
  • Work presented here was actually done in Three separate projects
    • Chiller replacements
    • Lighting retrofits
    • HVAC System Improvements
llnl building 111 system solutions
LLNL Building 111System Solutions
  • (2) Chillers replaced
    • (2) new 200 ton chillers, one chiller redundant
  • New VAV’s & VFD’s added to air system with zone level control
    • 250 zones
    • Economizer controls
  • New T-8 lighting, occupancy sensors, LED exit signs
llnl building 111 chiller replacement
LLNL Building 111Chiller Replacement
  • Done in 1994
  • New McQuay centrifugal chillers
    • 0.65 kW/ton
    • R-134a
    • 200 tons
    • Expected to save 151,400 kWh per year
llnl building 111 air system improvements
LLNL Building 111Air System Improvements
  • Done in 1996
  • Converted fixed balancing dampers
    • To variable/automatic actuating dampers
    • Used exist pneumatic controls
    • Could not afford new VAV boxes
    • Air flow controlled in each zone
    • Variable volume terminal boxes hooked up to existing zone heater thermostats
  • New VFD to control fan motors on east, west, south & interior system
  • Economizer controls
llnl building 111 lighting improvements
LLNL Building 111Lighting Improvements
  • Done in 1995
  • Delamped fixtures
    • Overlit building, especially in corridors
    • Reduced number of lamps per fixture from 3 to 2, or 6 to 3, or 8 to 4
  • Replaced existing T-12 lighting
    • New T-8 fluorescents, electronic ballasts
  • LED fixtures replaced incandescent and fluorescent exit signs
  • Occupancy sensors used to turn off lights in offices, corridors, etc.
llnl building 111 integrated economics
LLNL Building 111Integrated Economics
  • Measures with lower paybacks reduce the overall project payback period
llnl building 111 financing structure
LLNL Building 111Financing Structure
  • In-House Energy Management Funds from US DOE used for:
    • Chiller Replacements
    • Lighting retrofits
    • HVAC System improvements
  • Appropriations from US DOE, no financing charges
llnl building 111 project results
LLNL Building 111Project Results
  • Saved over $73,000 annually on utility bills
    • ~40% of total bill
  • New chillers without CFC’s
    • use R-134a, an HFC
  • Improved air quality & comfort
  • Increased efficiency of HVAC System
llnl building 111 lessons learned
LLNL Building 111Lessons Learned
  • Projects not planned & executed together
  • Reduced cooling load not accounted for in new chiller sizing
  • Incremental funding with lots of paperwork and hassles
  • Super-ESPC’s developed to address these problems
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