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India: Urban Population ; Projected. Karnataka urban population - 2001. Poverty…. Slum…. Population Living on Less Than US$2 per Day. 2002 Percent. Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators 2006.

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India: Urban Population ; Projected

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population living on less than us 2 per day
Population Living on Less Than US$2 per Day



Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators 2006.


India : Trends in Urban Poverty Urban Population (In Million) Below Poverty Line


In Karnataka, the rate of urban poverty ratio is 32.6% which is higher than that of several other states as well as of all-India levels.

  • Urban Poverty Levels across states (2004-05)

Source: Press Information Bureau, Government of India, March 2007

All India average urban poverty level : 25%

share of slum population in city population select cities
Share of Slum Population in City Population: Select Cities

Mumbai 54%

Faridabad 46%

Aligarh 45%

Meerut 44%

Warangal 43%

Amaravati 43%

Raipur 37%

Nagpur 36%

Guntur 33%

Kolkata 32%



Urban India: Access to Amenities 2001

  • % of Households
  • City Scenario
  • With No Water Source within Premises 34.6 %
  • With No Taps 31.3 %
  • No Electricity for Lighting 12.4 %
  • No Bath Room within House 29.6 %
  • No Latrine within House 26.3 %
  • No Kitchen within House 24.0 %
  • No Access to LPG for Cooking 82.5 %
  • With No Television 68.4 %
  • With No Scooter, Motor Cycle, Moped 88.5 %
  • With No Car, Jeep or Van 97.5 %

Urban India: Access to Amenities 2001

Households having No Exclusive Room or One Room 37.4%

Housing Shortage 2007 24.7 Million

Shortage under:

EWS 21.78 Million

LIG 2.89 Million

Slum Scenario Far More Gloomy

in slum
In Slum….

Delivery at Home 60 %

% of Underweight Children 50%

% of Children Not

Completely Immunised by Year 1 60%

No ORS for Children with Diarrhea 30%

Urban Family Welfare Centre/Health 1 Per

Post Availability 148,413

Slum Literacy Rate in Delhi & Ahmedabad Lower than Literacy Rate for Rural Areas

definition of slum
  • According to UN. Report: “Slum is a building , group of buildings or are characterized by overcrowding, deterioration, insanitary conditions or absence of facilities and amenities which, because of these conditions or any of them endanger the health, safety or Morales of its inhabitants or community
  • A slum , as defined by the UN-HABITAT , is a run-down area of a city characterized by substandard housing and squalor and lacking in tenure security
  • NBO – a compact area / cluster of dwelling units poorly built with inadequate / improper basic amenities such as sanitation, drinking water, and unhygienic conditions is considered as slum

Slum is based solely on socio-economic criteria, not on racial, ethnic, or religious criteria

slums are characterized by
Slums are Characterized by

Crime, Drug addiction, Alcoholism,

Poverty and Unemployment

Informal Economy

Mental illness, Suicide, Disease



If you don’t deal constructively with the Slum/Poor, they are going to deal Destructively with cities



  • President’s Pronouncement on June 4, 2009:

“My Government proposes to introduce a Rajiv Awas Yojana for the slum dwellers and the urban poor on the lines of the Indira Awas Yojana for the rural poor. The schemes for affordable housing through partnership and the scheme for interest subsidy for urban housing would be dovetailed into the Rajiv Awas Yojana which would extend support under JNNURM to States that are willing to assign property rights to people living in slum areas. My Government’s effort would be to create a slum free India in five years through the Rajiv Awas Yojana.”

  • Prime Minister’s Address on August 15, 2009:

“Today, lakhs of our citizens live in slums which lack basic amenities. We wish to make our country slum-free as early as possible. In the next 5 years, we will provide better housing facilities to slum-dwellers through a new scheme, Rajiv Awas Yojana.”




  • A Robust Data Base for Proper Targetting.
  • Preparing and Implementing Meaningful Slum
  • Free/Poverty Free city action plan.
usha urban statistics for hr and assessments
USHAUrban Statistics for HR and Assessments


  • To develop a national information system and knowledge base with focus on urban poverty for the purpose of planning, policy-making, project formulation, implementation, monitoring and review, especially in the areas of slum development, provision of basic services to the poor, and affordable housing.
  • For a better understanding of the issues for dissemination of empowerment of the poor, transparency, accuracy and acceptance of the data by the slum dwellers.
  • Locate slums & Squatter settlements.
  • To Identify the infrastructural needs of the slum areas.
    • Bringing convergence among stake holders


  • To assess Economic Conditions of Slum Dwellers.
  • Proper socio-economic mapping.
  • To collect and collate data relating to urban poverty, slums, livelihoods, delivery of civic amenities and housing to the poor at a single source.
  • To understand the poverty status of people through analysis of the income, productive activities and asset base of households.
  • To assess the skill levels of the urban poor, their present occupation, aptitudes etc so as to facilitate skill development for enhancement of their income.
  • Effective implementation of JnNURM
    • Basic Services to the Urban Poor (BSUP)
    • Integrated Housing & Slum Development Programmer (IHSDP)

7 Steps

step i
Step I

Introductory/preliminary workshop/briefing with all stakeholders at ULB levels like,

  • Councillors.
  • Municipal functionaries.
  • Community Structures (NHGs, NHCs & CDs) Other stakeholders.

To Explain

  • Objective of USHA
  • Methodology of survey
  • Scope
  • Formation of Nodal Committee
  • Community involvement
  • Roles of each stakeholder
  • Conduct of survey, monitoring – issues like ownership of house, monthly income
  • Compilation and Computerization
step ii
Step II
  • After entry into Slum – Rapport Building
  • Team members to meet important persons – Councillors, School/College Teachers/Lecturers/ Urban Health Centre/Banks/Prominent local leaders/NGOs/RWAs
  • Meet residents in their houses – spend considerable time
step iii
Step III
  • Perambulation of the slum along with some of the prominent/knowledgeable persons
  • This helps gain first hand knowledge on

- Approach roads

- Basic services

- Govt. infrastructure

- Housing/lifestyles/livelihoods pattern

step iv
Step IV

Introductory Meeting with residents

  • Explain the objectives – collect information for planning and policies that benefit the residents and the poor
  • Methodology and scope
  • Issues on which the poor entertain doubts – monthly income/debt burden/house ownership etc
  • Take their consent and time for conduct of survey
  • Slum profile can be filled up in the presence of all
step v
Step V
  • Mapping of households and other buildings.
  • Identify each household on the map provided with a serial number assigned there and then
  • If slum is too big, slum may be divided into convenient parts
  • This exercise helps in identifying every household and also get broad information on all households which might be missed in individual house visits
step vi
Step VI

Conduct of survey

  • Visit each house as identified in Mapping Exercise
  • Read every item and explain to them as you ascertain information from them – one enumerator elicits information without paper and pen while another does the documentation
step vii
Step VII
  • Debriefing session with all residents and prominent persons.
  • Disseminate/share gist/salient features of information collected – basic services, infrastructure, livelihoods, demographic details, housing, education, health etc.
  • Thanks giving.
do s and dont s for team
Do’s and Dont’s for team
  • Do follow Process Activities as finalised.
  • Go by the Objective of the Program rather than just by the formats filling.
  • Be Patient and Polite while dealing with the Residents.
  • Assume every one is telling the truth(very few exceptions).
  • Accept all information given by them(very few exceptions).
  • Be at leisure while filling up forms or interacting with residents.
  • Don’t give Promises
  • Don’t give Assurances
  • Don’t give Advises
  • Don’t threaten them for obtaining their cooperation
  • Don’t be in Hurry
  • Do not enter into Arguments
  • Don’t use Harsh or Hard language
  • Correctness of information on House/LandOwnership
  • Authenticity of information on MonthlyIncome
  • Accuracy of information on Debts Burden
  • Have unflinching trust in the capacity of the poor and accept whatever information they give. ( Exceptions )
  • In case of doubt – be partial to the poor.